Sunday, 14 January 2018

Handbooks on Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Djibouti prepared by the British Foreign Office 1920

In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. In a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.

Eritrea:

Eritrea is Number 126 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. At the time the study was written, Eritrea was an Italian colony. With the encouragement of the Italian government, the Rubattino Shipping Company began acquiring territories from local sultans on the shores of the Red Sea as early as 1869, and in 1890 Italy consolidated its possessions on the Red Sea under the name Eritrea. The historical section traces the late-19th century struggle for influence and control in the region involving, at different times, Egypt, Turkey, Britain, and Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The economic section discusses prospects for development of the colony itself, chiefly as a location for Italian-owned plantations worked by indigenous labor, and its importance as an outlet to the sea for Abyssinia. Eritrea remained an Italian colony until World War II, when it was occupied by the British. In December 1952 it was federated with Ethiopia. After a long war of independence, it gained international recognition as an independent country on May 24, 1993.

https://dl.wdl.org/11917/service/11917.pdf
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Abyssinia:

Abyssinia is Number 129 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book includes sections on physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. It summarizes the history of Abyssinia  (now known as Ethiopia) from its origins in Biblical times, through early contacts with Europeans in the 18th century, to the reign of Emperor Menelik II (1889−1913) and his victory over Italy in the war of 1895−96. The study notes that one of the principal results of the 1896 treaty of peace with Italy was “the recognition without reserve of the absolute independence of the Ethiopian Empire as a sovereign and independent state.” The book discusses the Ethiopian Church and its relationship to the Coptic Church of Egypt, as well as the Muslim, Jewish, and animist minorities living in the country. The economic section emphasizes the low level of agricultural and industrial productivity and the feudal system of land tenure. Foreign trade was beginning to grow, with the main exports being coffee beans and cattle hides.



British Somaliland:

British Somaliland (the northwest part of present-day Somalia) was a British protectorate, established in 1884−7, after a period of rivalry between Britain and Egypt (then nominally still part of the Ottoman Empire) for control of the territory on the African side of the Gulf of Aden. Sokotra (part of present-day Yemen) is an island in the Indian Ocean lying south of the Arabian Peninsula, which became a British protectorate in 1886. Both British Somaliland and Sokotra were regarded as strategically important for controlling the ocean trade routes from the Suez Canal to India, Australia, and the Far East. The book includes sections on physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. The section on political history summarizes the parts played by Great Britain, France, and Italy in this region of Africa and recounts the recurring difficulties the British and Italians had in subjugating the local religious leader and Somali nationalist Sayid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, a man the British called "the Mad Mullah," who preached holy war against the colonial powers and the neighboring Abyssinians (Ethiopians). The economic section notes the underdeveloped state of both protectorates, observing, for example, that there “are no roads in British Somaliland in the European sense of the word.”

https://dl.wdl.org/11787/service/11787.pdf
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Italian Somaliland:

Italian Somaliland is Number 128 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Italian Somaliland (part of the present-day Republic of Somalia) came under Italian control in early 1889, when the sultan of Obbia (present-day Hobyo) concluded a treaty with Italy placing his dominions along the coast of the Indian Ocean under Italian protection. Southern Somaliland was made an Italian crown colony in 1910, while Northern Somaliland remained an Italian protectorate, “ruled by local Sultans, over whose actions the Italian Government exercises only indirect political control.” The book includes sections on physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. It chronicles the establishment of Italian control and the demarcation of boundaries between Italian Somaliland and British East Africa and Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The section on social and political conditions is brief and stresses the strict Islamic faith of the Somali tribes. The study discusses the commitment of the Italians to turning Italian Somaliland into an economically profitable colony but notes the many obstacles to be overcome, including the dry climate and shortages of water, the lack of qualified labor for agricultural work, and the rudimentary transport network. It notes the prevalence of slavery in the southern part of the colony.

https://dl.wdl.org/11876/service/11876.pdf

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French Somaliland:

French Somaliland is Number 109 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. British Somaliland and Sokotra is Number 97 in the series; Italian Somaliland is Number 128. French Somaliland (present-day Djibouti) is located on the eastern coast of Africa, bordered at that time by the Italian colony of Eritrea, Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia), and British Somaliland (part of present-day Somalia). The book contains sections on physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. Included is a brief discussion of the population of the colony, which was comprised of two main groups, the Danakil (also known as the Afar), and the Issa Somalis. The section on political history summarizes the process by which France came to control the territory, beginning with the cession of the port of Obok by local chiefs in 1856 and ending with the conclusion of treaties of protection with the sultans of Tajura and Gobad and the chiefs of the Issa Somalis in 1884–85. The study notes that the economic value of French Somaliland derived almost entirely from its position as a transportation hub. It was the terminus of the railroad from the port of Djibouti to Ethiopia and a “convenient coaling station and port of call for vessels trading with the East, particularly with the French Asiatic possessions, and with Eastern Africa and Madagascar.” French Somaliland was renamed the Territory of the Afars and the Issas in 1967 and became independent as the Republic of Djibouti in 1977.

https://dl.wdl.org/11884/service/11884.pdf



Sunday, 17 December 2017

Isaias Afworki: Spy or a revolutionary


Isaias Afworki: Spy or a revolutionary


We have been trying for years to reach whether Isaias Afworki 1) was recruited by the CIA to join the ELF and help to dismantle it  frpm within (‘Operation seed planting project’ as Wedi Giorgo referred to it; 2) Whether he was recruited by Asrate Medhin Kassa (Governor of Eritrea : 1964 - Dec 1970), on the behalf of Ethiopia for the same purpose, with the implicit role of the Mossad. Asrate Kassa was born  1922 and died 1974. Now there is new information that strengthen the possibility that he was a spy. One thing we know for sure. Tesfamichael Giorgo brought Isaias to Asmara and took him to Kagnew Station and he was imprisoned by the Ethiopians, for it. Asrate Kassa's son, Mulugeta, has confirmed recently that his father had links with Isias and that Isaias came to visit his father in early 1972. Dawit Woldeghiorgis also gives us insight on how and when he knew Tesfamichael Giogo and on the training of the Ethiopian army by Israelis. The following are the old and new facts:

إسياس ٱفورقي، جاسوس ٱو ثوري

نحن نحاول منذ سنوات للوصول إلى ما إذا كان إسياس أفوركي  تم تجنيده من قبل وكالة المخابرات المركزية للانضمام إلى جبهة التحرير الارترية والعمل على تفكيكها من الداخل ،'عملية زراعة البذوز' كما أشار إليها ودي جورجو و ما إذا كان قد تم تجنيده من قبل أسرىت  كاسا ــ حاكم إريتريا: ١٩٦٤ إلى  ديسمبر ١٩٧٠، نيابة عن إثيوبيا لنفس الغرض، مع الدور الضمني للموساد. إبن أسرتى كاسا المدعو ملوقيتا٬ والمقيم في لندن يؤكد ان والده كانت له علاقة بإسياس، بعلم الامبراطور وانه زاره في لندن ١٩٧٢ ـ  هناك معلومات الآن جديدة تعزز إمكانية أنه كان جاسوسا. شيء واحد نعرفه بالتأكيد، هو إن تيسفاميكئل جيورجو ٱحضر أسياس إلى أسمرة وٱخذه الي  قاعدت كاغنيوإستيشن الٱمريكية  و قد تم سجنه من قبل السلطات الإثيوبية، لذلك السبب. وكما ان داويت ولدقيوقيس يقدم معلومات عن دور المستشريين الأسرائليين في تدريب ليس فقط الجيش الاثيوبي، بل كيف حدث مرة ان تم إحضار مجموعات من الانيانيا الى آسمرة في سرية تامة وتم تدريبهم وإرسالهم للسودان


http://www.mediafire.com/file/6is2nwxbdmamdla/Isaias+a+spy+or+arevolutionary_17+DEc.pdf

Friday, 15 December 2017

Ethiopia General Daniel Mengistu's claim that Isaias was their spy

General Daniel Mengistu who was the Foreign Affairs security chief of Ethiopia during Haile Sellasie has stated in an interview with an Ethiopian Newspaper, in 2000 has claimed that Isaias was an Ethiopian spy and on the payroll of Ethiopia.


Friday, 8 December 2017

List of names of 19,098 mostly Eritreans who got medals for valour for service in the Italian army

 IL CORAGGIO   DEGLI ASCARI, THE COURAGE OF THE ASCARI, 2014:

List of names of 19,098 individuals mostly Eritreans who got medals for valour for service in the Italian army, by Vito Zita


እዚ መጽናዕቲ ብቅደም ተኸተል ዝርዝር አስማት እቶም ኣብ ትሕቲ መግዛእቲ ጣልያን ብውትድርና ዘገልገሉን ናይ ጅግንነት መዳልያ ዝተዓደሉን ኣስታት 19098 ሰባት የጠቃልል።


ﯾﺠﻤﻊ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ وﺑﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ زﻣﻨﻲ –   أﺳﻤﺎء اﻟﺠﻨﻮد اﻟﺬﯾﻦ ﻗﺎﺗﻠﻮا ﺗﺤﺖ راﯾﺔ اﻟﺠﯿﺶ اﻹﯾﻄﺎﻟﻲ, واﻟﺬﯾﻦ منحو ﻣﯿﺪاﻟﯿﺎت  الشجاعة , وأﺳﺒﺎب ﺣﺼﻮﻟﮭﻢ على هذه الميداليات. وغالبيتهم من الإرتريين


Medals statistics - Gold medal for military merit: 9;  Silver medal for military merit: 2139; Bronze medal for military merit: 7185; War cross for military merit: 7560; Cross for the merit of war: 2085; Silver medal for civil merit: 6; Bronze medal for civil merit: 2; Solemn commendation: 112. Total: 19098.

Part I:

http://www.mediafire.com/file/z0qxkqhe1u741s1/Zita+book+I.pdf

Part II:

http://www.mediafire.com/file/6di4pdebqj64x1y/Zita+boo+2.pdf
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About the author:

VITO ZITA, the author of the book was born in 1960 in Barletta, Italy. He has lived in Siena since 1980 and has worked as a financial consultant, in financial planning and savings management. Since the end of the 1980s he has been involved in studies and research on the social and historical-military aspects of Italian colonial troops. He is a historical consultant for the colonial period at the International Museum of the World Wars, in Rocchetta Nuova IS, Italy. He is a member of the of a number of Associations including ANMIG and ANFI and ANRRA. In addition to several short essays, he published, "The courage of the Ascari - The motivations for the rewards for Military Valor for the war operations in Africa 1890-1943 assigned to the Ascari" (out of print, 2014); "The fallen of the Contrada della Chiocciola in the Great War" (out of print, 2016); "Gino Berardi, officer of colonial cavalry gold medal for Military Valor" edited by P. Angi, V. Zita, G. Zorzetto (2016); "The Colonial Cavalry from birth until 1936" (2016) also in an English version. He curated a permanent museum exhibition dedicated to the ascari at the Italian House of Asmara in November 2016. He is currently writing other works on the subject of colonial military history that will be published, soon. He is engaged in numerous conferences on the historical-military aspects, mainly colonial, which he is the  author or in collaboration with other colleagues.

Saturday, 2 December 2017

UN Resolution federating Eritrea with Ethiopia 1950

Report of the United Nations Commission for Eritrea; Report of the Interim committee of the General Assembly of the Report of the United Nations Commission for Eritrea: 


Wednesday, 29 November 2017

Old Italian videos on Eritrea from 1912


Old Italian videos on Eritrea from 1912


A 1912 video, on the life and times of the Eritrean Ascari:

https://www.europeana.eu/portal/it/record/08619/1037479000000254035.html?q=eritrea


1914 video: Arrival of Giovanni Cerrina Feroni, Italian Governor of Eritrea in Asmara and his visit to Keren:

http://cinestore.cinetecadibologna.it/video/dettaglio/43495

A 1929 video on sail boats from Assab, :

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrXhzCX7IJU

On Dankalia 1936:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGt_sICw9II

On Dankalia, 1939:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5Ic47-H1w4

Pictures on the construction of the road between Asmara and Massawa

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HbXDChsqOBs