Thursday, 13 August 2020

Wednesday, 22 July 2020

A collection of the EPLF communique 1988-1992 released by Dr. Tesfay Ghermazion who was the Deputy representative of the organization in the USA

A collection of the EPLF communique 1988-1992 released by Dr. Tesfay Ghermazion who was the Deputy representative of the organization in the USA



https://www.mediafire.com/file/rk60s9tn0abpdqp/Tesfay_Germazion_Comm_Rep_US_88_92.pdf/file

---------------------------------
Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll who shared the documents

Wednesday, 15 July 2020

Günter Schröder: MARRIAGE, VITAL EVENTS REGISTRATION & ISSUANCE OF CIVIL STATUS DOCUMENTS IN ERITREA


Günter Schröder on May 2017 MARRIAGE, VITAL EVENTS REGISTRATION & ISSUANCE OF CIVIL STATUS DOCUMENTS IN ERITREA

https://migrationlawclinic.files.wordpress.com/2017/05/paper-gc3bcnther-schrc3b6der-eritrea-marriage.pdf

Abdelkarim Ahmed Interview with German researcher Günter Schröder عبد الكريم أحمد

Abdelkarim Ahmed Interview with German researcher Günter Schröder on Kassala, January 7, 1988 on the early years of the liberation struggle. Abdelkarim Ahmed widely known as 'Seni Falu' was the military leader of Zone 3 in the Eritrean Liberation Army

المناضل عبد الكريم أحمد في مقابلة مع الباحث الألماني غونتر شرودر في كسلا، 7 يناير ١٩٨٨ حول السنوات الأولى في جبهة التحرير الارترية٠ عبد الكريم أحمد كان معروف ب "سيني فالو" وكان القائد العسكري للمنطقة ٣ في جيش التحرير الإريتري٠  


https://www.mediafire.com/file/odmu8pyh72lxddt/Abdelkerim_Ahmed_O7-O1-88.pdf/file

Friday, 10 July 2020

An expedition from Sennaar to Taka, Basa, and Beni-Amer, with a particular glance at the races of Bellad Sudan 1852


African wanderings; or, An expedition from Sennaar to Taka, Basa, and Beni-Amer, with a particular glance at the races of Bellad Sudan


https://ia600206.us.archive.org/30/items/africanwandering00wernuoft/africanwandering00wernuoft.pdf

Life, Wanderings and Labours in Eastern Africa by Charles New 1873


Life, Wanderings and Labours in Eastern Africa by Charles New 1873

Life, wanderings, and labours in Eastern Africa : with an account of the first successful ascent of the equatorial snow mountain, Kilima Njaro, and remarks upon East African slavery


https://ia800509.us.archive.org/33/items/lifewanderingsla00newc/lifewanderingsla00newc.pdf

Tuesday, 7 July 2020

Osman Saleh Sabbe interviews with Günter Schröder 1980/1983


Osman Saleh Sabbe interviews with Günter Schröder 1980/1983

المقابلات التي اجراها الباحث الاماني قونتر شرودر مع عثمان صالح صببي ١٩٨٠ و ١٩٨٣




https://www.mediafire.com/file/lk0xqz20me2wbau/Usman_Saleh_Sabbe_Full.pdf/file

Saturday, 27 June 2020

تقرير لجنــة مجلــس الأمــن بشأن الصومال وإريتريا يوليو ٢٠١١ S/2011/433


  تقرير لجنــة مجلــس الأمــن بشأن الصومال وإريتريا يوليو ٢٠١١

 ٣٥٨ - ولا يعدو الاتجار بالأسلحة انطلاقا من إريتريا الغربية أن يكون مجرد عنـصر في عمليـة هتريب أوسع نطاقـا بكـثير ومربحـة للغايـة، يـشرف عليهـا اللـواء تـيكلاي كيفلـي “مـانجوس ”، قائد المنطقة العسكرية الغربية (انظر أيضا الفقـرات ٢٦٢ ،و ٣٣٠ ،و ٣٦٢ أعـلاه، و ٣٦٢، و ٤١٦ ،و ٤٢٠ أدناه). ونظيره السوداني الرئيسي في هذا النشاط العابر للحـدود هـو مـبروك مبـارك سـليم، وزيـر الدولـة الحـالي للنقـل في الـسودان، وهـو أيـضا تـاجر ثـري وزعـيم سـابق للجماعة المتمردة المنحلّة المسماة “الأسود الأحرار”، التي كانت تـشكل في الـسابق جـزءا مـن تحالف المعارضـة الـسودانية في “الجبهـة الـشرقية”، المـدعوم مـن إريتريـا. ويعمـل سـليم، الـذي ينحدر مـن قبيلـة الرشـايدة، بـشكل وثيـق مـع مهـربين مـن الرشـايدة لهـم قـدم راسـخة في هـذا . (٢٨٩ (المضمار، وينشطون بعلم تام من المسؤولين الحكوميين على الجانبين كليهما من الحدود 



UN Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea Report July 2011


Letter dated 20 June 2011 from the members of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea addressed to the Chairman of the Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 751 (1992) and 1907 (2009) concerning Somalia and Eritrea


358. Arms trafficking from western Eritrea is just one component of a much
broader, and highly profitable, smuggling operation overseen by General Teklai
Kifle “Manjus”, Commander of the western military zone (see also paras. 262 and
330 above and 362, 416 and 420 below). His principal Sudanese counterpart in this
cross-border activity is Mabrouk Mubarak Salim, the current Minister of State for
Transport of the Sudan, who is also a wealthy merchant and former leader of the
now defunct “Free Lions” rebel group that once formed part of the Sudanese
“Eastern Front” opposition alliance supported by Eritrea. Salim, an ethnic Rashaida,
works closely with other well-established Rashaida smugglers, who operate with the
full knowledge of Government officials on both sides of the border.289
__________________

The full report:

Wednesday, 24 June 2020

ዓብደላ ሐሰን ፥ ታሪኽ ጅግንንት ተጋዳላይ ፥ ብ 1971 መንደቅ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ካርቸሊ ኣስመራ ብምንኮል ዘምለጡ ተጋዳልቲ Abdella Hassen's heroic journey of Struggle


ዓብደላ ሐሰን ፥ ታሪኽ ጅግንንት ተጋዳላይ ፥ ብ 1971 መንደቅ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ካርቸሊ ኣስመራ ብምንኮል ዘምለጡ ተጋዳልቲ 


ግዕዞ ታርኽ ቃልሲ ካብ ምምራሕ ቃልሲ ተማሃሮ አስመራ አብ 1960s ናብ ሜዳ ናብ ስርሒታት ፍዳእይን ከተማ አስመራ ናብ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ካቸሊ ናብ ሜዳ

"ምስ ብጻይ ስዉእ ሁማድ ዓምር ኢድሪስ (ካብሊ) ካብ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ካርቸሊ ናይ ኣስመራ ኩዒትና ዛወጻእናሉ ዕለት13/4/1971   ኔሩ።  ኣነ ብጻይ ገረዛጊሄር ተወልደ ምስ ተታሕዜ ተፈሊጠ ስለዝነበርኩ ኣምሊጠ ዕለት 14/4/1967 ንሜዳ ወጺኤ፣ ብዕለት 28/10/1970 ብጸላኢ ተተሓዝኩ ።

The heroic story of a freedom fighter's journey from a student leader in Asmara in the 1960s to the field to being a fedayeen in Asmara, the capture by the enemy, and the escape from the notorious Carsheli prison in 1971 by digging the walls of the prison. Plus Abdella Hassen Interview with German researcher Günter Schröder.
The well-guarded Carshelli  prison, Asmara
Abdella Hassen (left) and Humed Amer Idris (right)

Abdella Hassen (left) and Gerezgher Tewolde (right)

Tigrinya document:
https://www.mediafire.com/file/3cnfv0nzxqvirmk/Abdella_Hassen_Tigrinya_C.pdf/file

Abdella Hassen Interview with German researcher Günter Schröder: 

https://www.mediafire.com/file/ymuechdxfegucht/Abdalla_Hassan_13-2-1991.pdf/file


عبدالله حسن علي قصة بطولات مناضل



 :عبدالله حسن علي
قصة بطولات مناضل
رحلة من نضالات الحركة الطلابية بأسمرا في الستينات، الى الإنضمام الى جبهة التحرير الإرترية، الى العمل الفدائ بأسمرا، الى 
السجن، ثم الهروب الأسطوري من سجن أسمرا، بحفر حيطة السجن، ثم العودة الى الميدان في السبعينات

وعندما انكشف امري وتم القبض على زمیلي جریزقھیر تولدي خرجت إلى المیدان وكان ھذا بتاریخ ١٤ أبريل ١٩٦٧م


ھروبي من سجن ماركاتو مع زمیلي الشھید ھمد عامر ادریس (كابلي) عن طریق الحفر كان بتاریخ 13/4/1971م







رحلة فى الذاكرة مع الفدائ المناضل عبدالله حسن





Sunday, 7 June 2020

ኣባይና ሳዋ ልካይድ ሴማ እንደይ ተሓገዛ 1853 ጸላኢና ሳዋ ይውረድ ملعون من أجبر على الذهاب إلى ساوا

ኣባይና  ሳዋ  ልካይድ  ሴማ እንደይ  ተሓገዛ 1853*



ጸላኢና ሳዋ ይውረድ ትርጉም ካብ ቓንቓ ትግራይት

ግጥሚ ደርመስ ወድ ትንሥኤው መንሳዕ ቤት አብርሀ 1853
እዛ ግጥሚ እዚኣ ኣብ ግዜ ወራራት ግብጺ ኣብ ምዕራባዊ ቆላታት ኤርትራ ዝተጻሕፈት እያ። ዝተጨውዩ ሰባት ክረድኡ ንሳዋ ወሪዶም ምስተመልሱ ዝጻሓፍዋ እያ። ክልተ ካብ ሓሙሽተ ጥንታውያን ንግስነታት ቤጃ (Beja kingdoms**) አብ ናይ ሎሚ ኤርትራ ምንባረን ዝዝከር ኮይኑ ፣ ኣብ ሐንቲ ካብ፤አተን መደብር ወተሃደራዊ ታዕሊም መእሰያት ኣብ ኣብ ሳዋ ነይርዋ ።

“Cursed is the one who is forced to go to Sawa” is a poem in Tigrait by Dermas wed Tensaew in 1853. The poem was written during the Egyptian occupation of the western lowlands where they killed and abducted people. The poet and his companions went to find the abducted to Sawa and found out they had been taken to Sudan. He wrote the poem when they came back from Sawa. Their description fits today’s Sawa and its environs. It worthy to note that two of the ancient Beja Kingdoms were in present Eritrea and in one of them, Sawa was a military training outpost.

م"ملعون من أجبر على الذهاب إلى ساوا" قصيدة  بالتيقرايت الفها درماس ود تينسؤ عام ١٨٥٣. كتبت القصيدة أثناء الاحتلال المصري لأراضي المنخفضة الغربية حيث قتلوا واختطفوا الناس. ذهب الشاعر ورفاقه للعثور على المختطفين إلى ساوا واكتشفوا أنهم نقلوا إلى السودان. كتب القصيدة عندما عادوا من ساوا. يناسب وصفهم اليوم ساوا وضواحيها. وتجدر الإشارة إلى أن اثنتين 
من ممالك البجا القديمة كانتا في مايعرف بإريتريا اليوم ، وفي أحدهما كانت ساوا مركزًا عسكريًا للتدريب.د

*Enno Littmann, Publication of the Princeton Expedition to Abyssinia, Vol. III, Tigre Text, Leyden, 1913, pp. 22-23. 
**  

Five Independent Beja Kingdoms between the Nile and the Red Sea ]1]

Al-Ya‘qubi, in his history which was composed about A.D. 872, gives a description of the political situation in the north of this region in his own time after the Beja overrunning of part of the Axumite kingdom. [2] Between the Nile and the Red Sea were five independent kingdoms.

The first, called Naqis, extended from the Nile near Aswan to the lower Baraka. Its capital, Hajar, was visited by the Muslims for trading purposes.[3] The various Beja tribes in the kingdom were the Hadareb, Hiab,’Ama’ar, [4] Kawbar, Manasa (Mensa?), Rasifa, ‘Arbarb’a, and Zanafaj [5]. In their country were mines of gold and precious stones worked by Muslims with whom they were on good terms.

Next came the Baqlin (Rora Baqla?), covering the Eritrean Sahil, the Rora region of the plateau, and the middle course of the Baraka. Their religion resembled that of the Magians and Dualists. They called God Az-Zabjir [6] and the Devil Sahay Haraqa.

The third kingdom was called Bazin in the region between the Christian Nuba kingdom of ‘Alwa and the Baqlin with whom they were formerly at war. The Bazin were possibly the Kunama who are called Bazen by the Abyssinians.

The fourth, called Jarin, had a powerful king whose rule extended from the coastal town called Badi [7]

The fifth, called Qaţ’a, was the last Beja kingdom and extended from the border of Badi’ to a place called Faykun. They were a brave and powerful people and had a military training school called dar as-sawa where the young men were trained in arms. These tribes were all pagan with the exception of the southernmost who were Christians subject to the Abyssinian king.

The gradual spread of Islam amongst the Beja began with the settlement of Muslims in the mining district. Maqrizi records that the excursion of the Beja against Egypt let to the governor of Aswan sending ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Jahm against them. He concluded a treaty with their chief, Kanun ibn ‘Abdal-‘Aziz, whose headquarters was at Hajar in the year A.H. 216 (A.D. 831). His account shows that the Arab traders and mine owners who were active in northern Beja territory may have influenced the chiefs, and that mosques for the benefit of these Muslims existed, two of which are named, one at Hajar, the capital of Naqis, and another at Şinjat.

 

 




]1] Carlo Conti Rossini, Storia D’Etiopia, Bergamo, Istituto Italiano D’Arti Grafiche,1928, pp.265-280.

]2] Al-Yaqubi, Historiae (ed. Houtsma,1883), I,217-19; Trimingham, J. Specer, Islam in Ethiopia, London, Frank CASS, 3rd ed.1976,p.49

]3] Al-Yaqubi, Kitab al-Bulda, ed. De Goeje, in B.G.A., vii (1892), 336. Hajar has not been identified, but it was probably in the Red Sea Hills in the neighborhood of Sinkat.

]4] Possibly the Amar’ar who now live in the region around Port Sudan.

]5] In his K. al-Buldan (pp.336-7), which was composed a little later in A.D. 891-2, Al-Ya’qubi places the Zanafaj in the country of Baqlin, ‘the town where the king of the Zanafija resides is called Baqlin which the Muslims visit occasionally for trading. Their rite (madhhab) is like that of the Hadariba. They have no revealed law and merely worship an idol called hahakhawa.

]6] V.II. az-Zabahir, al-Bahir, possibly the Eth. Egzi’aheher; cf. Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadhani, K. al-Buldan, B.G.A. v. 78

  1. ]7] Crowfoot identifies Badi with Airi (Ar-Rib) near ‘Aqiq (‘Some Red Sea Ports…’, Geog.Jour. xxxvii, 1911,542ff), while Wiet identifies it with Massawah, which even today is called Batsi in Tigre and Badi in Bedawie. 

   

Thursday, 4 June 2020

The Daring ELF Operation of Haikota July/August 1963




The Daring ELF Operation of Haikota  July/August 1963


Gendifil

An ELF unit led by Adem Mohamed Hamid planned to attack and take control of the police station in Haikota. At the beginning of the armed struggle, it was the police force that got engaged with the ELF units. The Haikota Station was an essential outpost for that purpose. An ELF fighter, Mebrahtu Tseggai, from Bogo nicknamed, Getaa 'ገታእ', was sent to Haikota to survey the possibility and collect information.  When he finished his mission, he reported to the Head of the unit Adem Mohamed Hamid, nicknamed ‘Gendifil’-elephant soldier that it was possible.  Gendefil then went to Haikota disguised as a mad person and confirmed it was indeed feasible. Before the operation, a policeman from Bushuka station, Omer Dini, had defected to the ELF with some weapons.

According to the plan, the unit stopped a passenger bus near Haikota. The bus was on its way to Tessenei. The driver was Abu Humed. The fighters, some of them unarmed, known then as ‘Kolei’ stopped the bus before it reached Haikota. They politely asked all the passengers to disembark near a place with Trees and water. They took over the van and drove to Haikota, singing marriage songs. They stopped in front of the police station and immediately attacked and took control of the station. In the exchange, there were some casualties in the police.  But not from the fighters. The police were taken by surprise.

The fighters took 35 rifles (Abu Ashara), 60 hand grenades, and two light machine guns for the first time. They drove the bus into the wilderness, but the bus got stuck in a river-bed, not far from the town. So they had to carry all the weapons for a long distance. This incident paved the way for the battle of Togoruba that took place on 15th March 1964, which was the first confrontation with the Ethiopian army.  

Gendefil, who was born in the village of Shalab in 1935, joined the Sudanese Defence Forces in 1953. He met Awate in Hawasheit on 28/9/1961. He passed away on 17.04.1996

A short biography on Gendefil , in Arabic.


Source: ELF records and interviews with persons who knew about the operation


Sunday, 17 May 2020

إدريس محمد آدم في مقابلة مع الباحث الالماني، جونتر شرودر مارس 1989


إدريس محمد آدم في مقابلة مع الباحث الالماني، المهتم بقضايا القرن الإفريقي، جونتر شرودر

الزمان / المكان:مارس 1989 / الخرطوم يتحدث فيها عن بدايات الثورة







شكرًا لود عثمان لترجمة المقابلة إلى العربية

Monday, 11 May 2020

Günter Schröder Interview with Tesfay Weldemikael "Dagiga' 1989_1991

Günter Schröder Interview with Tesfay Weldemikael "Dagiga' 1989_1991 



Different Aspects of the History of the Eritrean Revolution:

  • The youth and student movement in Asmera in the early '70s and how and when he joined the ELF
  • ELF Fedaayin Administration before 1975 
  • Background of some Revolutionary Council (RC) Members
  • The political situation in Eritrea and the other political movements in 1991
  • On the relations of ELF with TPLF and EPRP

Monday, 2 March 2020

An Unfinished African Dream/ Eritrea: Ancient Times To 1968


An Unfinished African Dream/ Eritrea: Ancient Times To 1968 by Mohamed Kheir Omer, published 2020 by LuLu Publishing Services, based in the USA


One minute summary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pLv1DsyPgzk

Amazon author page: https://www.amazon.com/Mohamed-Kheir-Omer/e/B084ZYPMR8

Book website: https://www.mkafricandreams.com/

Book interview in English: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHlFp7fQUGs

Book Review by Pen Eritrea: https://peneritrea.com/blog/book-review-the-dynamics-of-an-unfinished-african-dream-eritrea

Book interview in Tigrinya: https://www.sbs.com.au/language/tigrinya/audio/conversation-with-the-writer-of-the-dynamics-of-unfinished-african-dreams-dr-mohamed-kheir

Book interview in Arabic: 

عرض لكتاب دينامكيات حلم أفريقي غير مكتمل إريتريا: من العصور القديمة حتى 1968 Part I



عرض لكتاب دينامكيات حلم أفريقي غير مكتمل إريتريا: من العصور القديمة حتى 1968  Part II


Book interview in Amharic Part I:
https://www.sbs.com.au/language/amharic/audio/interview-with-dr-mohamed-kheir-omer-pt-1

Book interview in Amharic part II:
https://www.sbs.com.au/language/amharic/audio/interview-with-dr-mohamed-kheir-omer-pt-2

Book Interview with Tempo Africtv: https://www.facebook.com/100009535030071/videos/2733533803641094/?t=0

Available at: http://www.lulu.com/shop/mohamed-kheir-omer/the-dynamics-of-an-unfinished-african-dream-eritrea-ancient-history-to-1968/paperback/product-24405120.html

Available at: https://www.amazon.com/Dynamics-Unfinished-African-Dream-Eritrea/dp/1684716497/ref=sr_1_1?crid=DP8J2WNTEKF5&keywords=an+unfinished+african+dream+eritrea&qid=1583150898&sprefix=An+Unfinished+African+dream%2Caps%2C307&sr=8-1

Book Review by Prof. Tekeste Negash: http://awate.com/book-review-dynamics-unfinished-african-revolution/




Saturday, 29 February 2020

Tigrinya Applicatives in Lexical-Functional Grammar by Nazareth Amlesom


Tigrinya Applicatives in Lexical-Functional Grammar, a 2011 PhD Thesis by Nazareth Amlesom, Department of Linguistic, Literary and Aesthetic Studies University of Bergen

Part of the Abstract:

The primary goal of this thesis is to describe and analyze applicative constructions in Tigrinya. An applicative construction is characterized by a verb that bears an affix for an argument that either has a semantic role that is not normally entailed by the lexical meaning of the base verb or is specified as a peripheral argument. The choice of an applicative expression is motivated by semantic and discourse factors. Applicatively expressed arguments are associated with referents that possess high semantic prominence and discourse salience. The applicative phenomenon is viewed as a morphosyntactic strategy that introduces a core object function that is salient in the discourse event described by the verb. The theoretical motivation of this study is to explore the conditions that trigger object marking in Tigrinya so as to examine the semantic, functional and discourse properties of objects. The main theoretical framework used in this research is Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG). This formalism assumes that the different linguistic information pertaining to functional, semantic and discourse structures can be modeled as interrelated parallel representations.

https://bora.uib.no/bitstream/handle/1956/5730/42478%20Nazareth%20Kifle%20materie.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y