Tuesday, 31 January 2017
Saturday, 28 January 2017
The kingdom of the Beja (mamlakat al-buja); They dwell between the Nile and the sea and are divided into several kingdoms, each governed by its own king.
The first kingdom of the Beja (al-buja) begins from the Aswān frontier. This is the last district of the Moslem territory stretching east and west from south to the frontier of Barakāt. They are a kind of Ḥabash called Naqīs, and their capital is called Hajar. They are subdivided into tribes and clans (buṭūn), as is customary among the Arabs; some of their tribes and clans [p. 72] are al-hadarāt [sic! obviously for al-ḥadāriba], Suhāb, al-'Amā’ir, Kūbir (Kūtir?), Manāsa, Ras'a, Arbari'a and az-Zanāfij. Gold mines, precious stones and emeralds are found in their country. They are at peace with the Moslems and the Moslems work in the mines of their country.
The second kingdom of the Beja is that of Baqlīn, which has many towns and is very large. Their religion is similar to that of the Magians (al-majūs) and the Dualists (ath-thunawiyya); they call the Almighty God by the name "az-zabhīr"<ref>A tentative Arabic script from the Ethiopian word Egziā’behēr (God). From this passage, one might guess that they were Christian (Conti Rossini, Storia d’Etiopia, p. 274.).</ref> and the devil by the name "sahāy harāqa". They pull out the hair of their chin and remove their central incisors.
The third kingdom is that of the Bāzīn, who border on the kingdom of the 'Alwa Nubians and the Baqlīn Beja, with whom they are, however, at war. The crop on which they live is ... [lacuna] ... which, together with milk, forms their staple food.
The fourth kingdom is called Jārīn. They have a dreadful king, whose rule extends from Bādi’<ref>Arabic: Bādi or Bāsaʾ (Tigre and Tigray: Batsa: Bade) is the old name of Massawa Island.</ref> on the Red Sea coast, to the frontier of Barakāt in the territory of the Baqlīn, until a place called Hall ad-dujāj. They, too, remove their upper and lower incisors lest - they say they resemble the teeth of asses; they also pull out the hair of their chins.
The fifth kingdom is that called Qat'a [Ibn Hawqal: "Qas'a"], the last of the Beja kingdoms. It is very large, extending from Bādi’ to a place called Faykūn.
[p. 73] They are a warlike, powerful nation who possesses a fighting clan (dār muqātila) known by the name of dār as-sawā, where their bravest young men are specially trained for war and combat.
The sixth kingdom is the kingdom of the Najāshī, which is a vast powerful country. Its royal town is Ku'bar [Aksum]. The Arabs go thither to trade. They have big towns and their sea coast is called Dahlak. All the kings of the Habasha country are subject to the Great King (al-malik al-a'zam) and are careful to obey him and pay tribute. The Najāshī professes the Jacobite Christian religion (dīn an-nāsraniyya al-ya’qūbiyya).
The last [i.e. 7th] kingdom of the Ḥabasha is that of the Zanj, a people who dwell near the Sind, as well as on other related nations, different from those Zanj who dwell on the borders of the Sind and the Kurak. They are people (qawm) who, Respite of their multitude (hisāb) are, however, of the same mind (ijtimā' qulūb). (ibid. I, pp. 191-193).
Or can be downloaded at:
Friday, 27 January 2017
Note: Taken from Wikipedia
This is an English translation from the original manuscript in Greek, V. I :
And this is a Greek and English version of the book:
Thursday, 26 January 2017
Futuh Al Habasha or the Conquest of Abyssinia by Shihab Al Din Ahmad, an edited preparatory in English, 1894
The original manuscript in Arabic is an acoount of the conquest of Abyssinia by Imam Ahmed Bin Ibrahim
Wednesday, 25 January 2017
NARRATIVE OF THE PORTUGUESE EMBASSY TO ABYSSINIA DURING THE YEARS 1520-1527. BY FATHER FRANCISCO ALVAREZ.
Tuesday, 24 January 2017
Toponomastics of Eritrea in the Light of Arabic Geographical Atlases Part I. Generalities, 2016 by BOGUSŁAW R. ZAGÓRSKI
Eritrea as a part of the Arab World is an unclear idea and it is of interest therefore to study its presentation as a cultural-geographical entity with its toponymic coverage by Arabic publications. The scarcity and difficult availability of the local cartographic products and other publications documenting the state-of-the-art of Arabic toponyms in the country, directs research towards external sources, in this case foreign school atlases in Arabic. This study surveys all Eritrean toponyms found in the collection of 48 such atlases and attempts at finding the rules of Arabicizing the names, the use of verbal roots and word structure patterns, both original Arabic ones as well as those spontaneously created for this occasional purpose, and underlines the low degree of standardization occurring in observed procedures.
Monday, 23 January 2017
You can download the book here:
OR here: http://www.mediafire.com/file/9xn64n968bysqg1/ER_Periplus+of+the+Erythrean+Sea.pdf
And a book review of the book:
Thursday, 19 January 2017
1011 declassified confidential documents related to Eritrea released by the CIA, recently. They are part of 13 million such confidential documents released by the CIA , based on the CIA Freedom of Information Act