Wednesday, 23 September 2020



By THOMAS FIASCHI, M.D., CH.D.PISA AND FLORENCE, Honorary Captain-Surgeon New South Wales Cavalry, late Honorary Surgeon, Sydney Hospital. 'DURING my period of attenidance at the Hospital of Asmara

British Medical Journal 29 August 1896

Monday, 14 September 2020

Some of the many crimes of Ras Alula in Eritrea 1879 - 1888


Some of the many crimes of Ras Alula in Eritrea

When Atse Yohannes took over in Tigray, the highlands of Eritrea were autonomous regions ruled by local families. Ras Woldemikael Solomon, ruler of Hamasein (1841 – 1879) from Hazega replaced Ras Hailu Tecle Haimanot of Tsatzega who was close to Atse Tedros. Ras Alula raided and pillaged several parts of Eritrea at different times before and after his appointment as Governor of Seraye, Hamassein and Akle Guzai on 9th October, 1876. His was the first non-Eritrean to rule the highlands of Eritrea. The only way he could feed his large army was to raid different parts of Eritrea and loot livestock and other property. Yet he never succeeded in having full control of Eritrea.

At the end of September 1880 he led his 12,000 man army into the Ansaba valley. On 10 October 1880, Alula crossed the river towards Keren near the Egyptian post of Shabbab. A detachment was sent to neutralize the fort of Sanhit (Keren), while the bulk of his army marched to the Halhal high plateau and established a fortified camp on top of a mountain. Here, Alula stayed for three weeks, dispatching strong raiding parties against the Habab, Beni Amer, Mensaa, Barka and others.

On 15 February 1882, Alula pillaged for 2 days Ad-Tamaryam and Bejuk and returned to Adi Teklay with about 7000- 800 sheep and goats , similar number of cattle and 15, 000 (Maria Theresa dollars).

On 12 May 1885, at head of 5,000 troops, the Alula encircled 1,000 followers of Shaykh ·Abd al-Qadir of the Habab who was collaborating with Mahdist leader, Osman Digna near Amba and annihilated a third of them.

On 22 November 1886, he pillaged the Baria and Kunama, took all their livestock and killed about 2/3 of them. A memory that is fresh on the folktales of the Baria and Kunama.

Ras Woldemikael, Bahta Hagos, Kifleyesus and the Tigrian renegade Dabbab with his Assawota fighters resisted his presence (Erlich 1997, 11-16, 25, 32-34). The Beni Amer and Ras Woldemichael fought on the side of the Egyptians at Gura against Alula. The Italians were able to control most parts of Eritrea peacefully as the people were fed up with Alula’ incursions.

He even changed the demography of Hamasein as many of his soldiers settled there.
Source: Erlich, Haggai (1997). Ras Alula and the scramble for Africa -a political biography : Ethiopia and Eritrea 1975-1897

Saturday, 29 August 2020

A Survey of the Beja Tribes by Farej Hamid Farej دراسة استقصائية عن قبائل البجا من قبل فرج حامد فرج


A Survey of the Beja Tribes by Farej Hamid Farej, a Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of Arts, University of Asmara 1971 

دراسة استقصائية عن قبائل البجا من قبل فرج حامد فرج، أطروحة مقدمة إلى كلية الآداب، جامعة أسمرة ١٩٧١


Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for sharing and thanks to Farej Hamid Farej for sending me a refined version

Friday, 28 August 2020

Linking the Highlands and Lowlands: Implications of a Test Excavation at Kokan Rockshelter, in 1994 at Agordat, Eritrea

Linking the Highlands and Lowlands: Implications of a Test Excavation at Kokan Rockshelter, in 1994 at Agordat, Eritrea 

ربط المرتفعات وآلمنخفضات: الآثار المترتبة على إجراء عملية حفر تجريبية في جبل كوكن ، جوار مدينة أغردات في عام ١٩٩٤

Entrance to the Koken Rockshelter

تحليل لحفريات الاستطلاع والاختبار في المتحف الوطني الإريتري في عام ١٩٩٤ في جبل كوكن يضع أغردات بقوة ضمن مزيج من الأنظمة التجارية الإقليمية من ٢٣٠٠ قبل الميلاد إلى "فترة ما قبل أكسوم، حوالي ٤٠٠ قبل الميلاد حيث كانت مركزاً للتجارة المتزايدة بين وادي النيل والمرتفعات الإريترية/الإثيوبية 

An article by S.A. Brandt, Andrea Manzo and Cinzia Perlingeri published at The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. P. R. Schmidt, Curtis, Matthew, Zelalem Teka. Trenton (NJ), Red Sea Press. : 33-47.

The article deals with ceramic and lithic materials from a 2nd-1st millennium BC site in the region of Agordat, in the Western Eritrean lowlands. A first assessment of the role of the region in the complex economic relationship between lowlands and Eritrean highland is given.

An analysis of reconnaissance and test excavations from the National Eritrean Museum in 1994 in Kokan firmly places Agordat within the mix of regional trading systems from  ca. 2300 BCE to the “Pre-Axumite period, ca. 400 BCE where it was a center of the increasing trade between the Nile valley and Eritrean/Ethiopian highlands

Folktale of the Bet Asgede on their origins from Tsenadegle ድግም ቤት አስገድ ዛንታ ቤት አስገድ ብዛዕባ መቦቆሎም ካብ ጸንዓደግለን ጉዕዞኦም ካብ ዓዲ ንፋስ ሐማሴን ናብ ሳሕል

  ድግም ቤት አስገድ     

 ዛንታ ቤት አስገድ ብዛዕባ መቦቆሎም ካብ ጸንዓደግለን ጉዕዞኦም ካብ ዓዲ ንፋስ ሐማሴን ናብ ሳሕል 

التاريخ الشفوي لبيت أسقدى حول ٱصولهم من ظنعادقلي وهجرتهم من عدي نفاس حماسين الى الساحل


Source: Conti Rossini,  STUDI SU POPOLAZIONI DELL’ ETIOPIA , Rivista degli studi orientali, Vol. 6, Fasc. 2 (1913), pp. 374 - 380

علاقة السودان باثيوبيا عبر التاريخ بقلم عثمان صالح سبى The Historical Relations of Sudan with Ethiopia by Osman Saleh Sabbe, in Arabic


The Historical Relations of Sudan with Ethiopia by Osman Saleh Sabbe, in Arabic

علاقة السودان باثيوبيا عبر التاريخ بقلم عثمان صالح سبى

On the 'Agazian' Roots መብቆል 'ኣጋዝያን'

 To the so-called 'Agazian' and their sponsors in Tigray. If you want to go back to your roots, go to Yemen. Yet another, Ethiopian source, of the many proofs that Agazian is the name of a tribe in Southern Arabia that migrated to our region. And to the Tigrians who deny any links to Arabia:

እቶም ኣጋዝያን ኢና ትብሉ፤ ኣብ ኤርትራ ምንባር እንተጸሊእኩም ናብቲ ዝመጻእኩምሉ ዓዲ የመን ተመለሱ ጻዕዳ ይግበረልኩም። እዚ ሓደ ካብቲ ቡዙሕ መርትዖታት ዝጠግስ እዩ፤ ማለት ኣጋዝያን ካብ ደቡብ ዓረብ ወይ የመን ዝፈለሱ ዓሌት ምዄኖም ዘረጋግጽ እዩ። እዚ መጽሓፍ ኣብ አዲስ አበባ ዩኒቨርስቲ ከም ቃንዲ መወከሲ ናይ ታሪኽ ትምህርቲ ቀዳማይ ዓመት ይጥቀሙሉ። እዚ ጽሑፍ እዚ ነቶም አብ ትግራይ ኮይኖም ምስ ደቡብ ዓረብ ወይ የመን ርክብ የብልናን ዝብሉዉን ይምልከት።
ናብ ኢትዮጵያ ዝፈለሱ ቀቢላታት ብዙሓት’ኳ እንተነበሩ፡ ሎሚ ግን ካብኣቶም ክልተ ጥራይ ኢና እንፈልጥ፡ ሓበሻትን ኣግኣዝያንን (ጋዘ)። እቲ ቀዳማይ ብሓደ ናይ ደቡብ ዓረብ ውራቕ (ዝተወረቐ ጽሑፍ- inscription) ክምስከረሉ ኸሎ፡ ናይቲ ካልኣይ ግን በቲ ኣብ ኣዱሊስ ዝርከብ “ውቕሮ” ናይቲ ዘይተፈልጠ ሃጸይ ኢትዮጵያ ዝተጠቕሶ ጥራይ ኢና እንፈልጦ። ኣብቶም ብ3 ቋንቋታት ዝተገብሩ ናይ ንጉስ ኢዛና ውቕሮታት፡ ሓበሻት ዝብል ስም ሓንሳብ ጥራይ ተጠቒሱ ኣሎ። እዚ ድማ ኣብቶም ቋንቋታ ሳባውን ግእዝን ጽሑፋት ኢዩ። ኣብ ኢትዮጵያውያን “ኣግኣዝያን” ዝብል ቃል ህቡብ ኢዩ። ጥንታዊ ቋንቋኦም ግእዝ ይበሃል፡ ኣብ ኢትዮጵያዊ ስነ-ጽሑፋት ድማ ንመሬቶም “መሬት ኣግኣዝያን፡” ወይ “ብሔረ ኣግኣዝያን፡” ኢልካ ናይ ምጽዋዕ ዝንባለ (ኣዝማምያ) ኣሎ። ሓበሻት ግን ኣብ ወግዓውን ስነ-ጽሑፍ ተጎስዩ። እቲ “ጋዘ” ዝብል ቃል ከም ወግዓዊ መጸውዒ ጥንታዊ ይመስል። ምኽንያቱ እቲ ኣብ ናይ ኣዱሊስ ውቕሮ ሓተታ ዝሃበ ሰብ፡ ነዚ ቃል ምስ ኣኽሱምን ከባቢኡን ኣተኣሳሲሩ ስለዘላልዮ። ሎሚ እዚ ቃል’ዚ ዝተለወጠ መልክዑ፡ ኣብቲ “ኣከለ ጉዛይ፡” ዝብል ንመላእ ዞባ ደቡባዊ ኤርትራ ዝምልከት መጸውዒ ንረኽቦ። እዚ ድማ ምስ ጥንታዊት ወደብ ኣዱሊስ ዝተኣሳሰረ ነበረ።

ኣብ ኣውራጃ (ክልል) ትግራይ ሓደ “ሳሓርት፡” ዝበሃል ወረዳ ኣሎ። ኣብ የመን ድማ፡ ብሓደ ዓይነት (ተመሳሳሊ) ስም ማለት “ሰሓርታን” ዝበሃል፡ ኣብ ገምገም ቀይሕ ባሕሪ፡ 75 ኪ/ሜ ካብ ሑደይዳ ርሒቑ ዝርከብ ቦታ ኣሎ። ኣብ ጥቓ’ቲ ኣብ ትግራይ ዘሎ ሳሓርት፡ ሓደ ሓውዜን ዝበሃል፡ ቀደም ኣገዳስነት ዝነበሮ፡ ቦታ ኣሎ። እዚ ድማ ካብቲ ደቡባዊ ሓውሳን ዝበሃል ናይ የመን ክፋል ኢዩ። ደቡባዊ ምዕራብ ካብ ይሓ፡ ሓደ “ማዳራ፡” ዝበሃል ቦታ ኣሎ። ኣብ ሓደ ደቡብ የመንዊ ውቕሮ (ካትባን) ድማ ሓደ ብተመሳሳሊ “ማድራን” ዝበሃል ቦታ ተጠቒሱ ይርከብ። ካብ ይሓ ሰሜናዊ ምዕራብ ሓደ ኣሕሰኣ ዝበሃል ወረዳ ኣሎ። እዚ ምስቲ ኣብ ቲሓማ፡ የመን ዘሎ፡ “ኣሕሲያሕ፡” ዝበሃል ቦታ ይመሳሰል ወይ ይጋጠም። ኣብ ጥቓ ሰንዓፈ፡ ኤርትራ፡ ሓደ ኣብ ጥንቲ “ኮሎየ፡” ዝበሃል ዝነበረ ቦታ ኣሎ። እዚ ምስቲ ኣብ ካታባን ዝርከብ “ኩላይ” ይመሳሰል። ሰራየ ዝብል ስም ካብቲ “ሳርዋን” ዝብል ናይ ጎቦታት ሳራት ኣብ የመን ዝመጸ ኢዩ። ካልእ “ቢሻ፡” ዝበሃል ኣብ ኤርትራ ኣብ መንጎ ኣቑርደትን ከሰላን (ሱዳን) ዝርከብ ቦታ፡ ምስቲ ኣብ ማእከል የመን ዝርከብ “ባሒላሕ” ዝበሃል ቦታ ይመሳሰል ወይ ይተኣሳሰር። ብተወሳኺ እቶም ሰፈርቲ ንፈለግ (ወይ ሩባ) መረብ፡ ብዝኽሪ ናይቲ ፍሉጥ ሓጽቢ “ማሪብ” ኢሎም ሰምዮሞ።

ብዘይካ’ዞም ተመሳሰልቲ ኣስማት ቦታታት፡ ካብ ደቡብ ዓረብያ ብዝመጹ ህዝቢ ስደተኛታት (ወይ ፈለስቲ) ዝተመስረታ ከተማታት ኣለዋ። ሓንቲ ኣብነት ይሓ ኢያ። እቲ “ኣዋም፡” ዝብል ኣብዚ ቦታ ኣብ ዝርከብ ሳባዊ ውቕሮታት ዘሎ ስም፡ ምናልባት ስም ናይቲ ኣብ ይሓ ዘሎ ቤተ-መቕደስ ኮይኑ፡ ስሙ ካብቲ ኣብ ማሪብ ዘሎ “ኣል ሙቓሕ፡” ዝተባህለ ቤተ-መቕደስ ዝተወስደ ኢዩ። እዚ ስም መበቆሉ ካብ ደቡብ ዓረብያ ምዃኑ ኣይንፈልጥን ኢና። ይሓ፡ እቶም ካብ ደቡብ ዓረብያ ዝመጹ ስደተኛታት ማእከላይ ቦታኦም ኣበይ ከምዝነበረ፡ ገለ ኣመት ትህበና ኢያ። ነዚ ዕላማ ኩሉግዜ፡ ስትራተጂካዊ ኣገዳስነትን ሕርሻዊ ተኽእሎታትን ዘለዎ ቦታ ይመርጹ ነበሩ። ኣብ እግሪ ሓደ እምባ ዝተደኮነት ኮይና፡ ኣብ ምብራቓ ወሓዚ ሩባ ምስ ሰፊሕ ሰጣሕ ጎልጎል ይርከብ። እቶም ሰፈርቲ ነቲ እምባ ከም መከላኸሊ ከም ዝተጠቕሙሉ ብሩህ ኢዩ። እዚ ተርእዮ’ዚ ኣብ ኩለን’ተን ቅድመ-ኣክሱም ዝነበራ ኢትዮጵያውን ከተማታት ይርአ። እተን ደቡባዊ ዓረብያዊ ኣሰራት ዘለወን ማእከላት፡ ንስፍሓት ናይቲ ካብ ደቡባዊ ዓረብ ዝመጹ ሰፈርቲ ዝሓደግዎ ጽልዋ፡ ብሓርፋፍ ንኽንግምት ክሕግዛና ኢየን። እዚ ካብ ገማግም ቀይሕ ባሕሪ ክሳብ ባርካ ምዕራብ ፈለግ ተከዘን ይዝርጋሕ ነበረ። ኣብዚ ህሉው ግዜ ግን ንስፍሓት ጽልዋ ደቡባዊ ዓረብ ንምግላጽ ኣሸጋሪ ይኸውን።
Source: Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1972 by Sergew Habte Sellasie p. 27-30

Tuesday, 25 August 2020

“Tsada Getzu, Tsada Libu (White Face, White Heart)”: An Exploration of Skin Lightening in Eritrea


“Tsada Getzu, Tsada Libu (White Face, White Heart)”: An Exploration of Skin Lightening in Eritrea by Fikrejesus Amahazion published 2017 at Africology: The Journal of Pan African Studies, vol.11, no.1. 236-260


This paper represents an analysis of skin lightening through interviews, focus group discussions, and survey questionnaires with informants in Eritrea. Findings suggest that skin lightening is increasingly popular with many individuals, particularly females, and that those engaging in skin lightening primarily use creams, lotions, soaps, and homemade mixes consisting of natural ingredients. As with many other countries, skin lightening in Eritrea is associated with a number of different factors. It is recommended that national policymakers consider enacting legislation or developing guidelines to regulate skin lightening products and its ingredients, while public awareness of the significant health risks associated with the use of lightening products is also advocated.

Saturday, 22 August 2020

Urban Precursors in the Horn: Early 1st Millennium Communities in Eritrea


Urban Precursors in the Horn: Early 1st Millennium Communities in Eritrea:

The authors  highlight re­search showing that between 800 BC and 400 BC , the greater Asmara area of  Eritrea supported the earliest settled agro-pastoralist communi­ties known in the highlands of the Horn. These communities pre-date and are contemporane­ous with Pre-Aksumite settlements in the high­lands of southern Eritrea and northern Ethiopia.

Friday, 21 August 2020

Sunday, 16 August 2020

Isaias's answers to questions from the public 1994

 Isaias answers to questions from the public 1st September 1994 : 720 questions that were condensed to 42. Those included:

- the killing of disabled fighters in Mai Habar

- the laying-off of staff

- Eritrean opposition fronts

- the fighters arrested after the uprising May 1993

- press law, corruption, housing shortage, aid, foreign relations, etc


Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for having the answers translated from Tigrinya to English and for sharing it

Thursday, 13 August 2020

Wednesday, 22 July 2020

A collection of the EPLF communique 1988-1992 released by Dr. Tesfay Ghermazion who was the Deputy representative of the organization in the USA

A collection of the EPLF communique 1988-1992 released by Dr. Tesfay Ghermazion who was the Deputy representative of the organization in the USA

Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll who shared the documents

Wednesday, 15 July 2020



Abdelkarim Ahmed Interview with German researcher Günter Schröder عبد الكريم أحمد

Abdelkarim Ahmed Interview with German researcher Günter Schröder on Kassala, January 7, 1988 on the early years of the liberation struggle. Abdelkarim Ahmed widely known as 'Seni Falu' was the military leader of Zone 3 in the Eritrean Liberation Army

المناضل عبد الكريم أحمد في مقابلة مع الباحث الألماني غونتر شرودر في كسلا، 7 يناير ١٩٨٨ حول السنوات الأولى في جبهة التحرير الارترية٠ عبد الكريم أحمد كان معروف ب "سيني فالو" وكان القائد العسكري للمنطقة ٣ في جيش التحرير الإريتري٠

Friday, 10 July 2020

An expedition from Sennaar to Taka, Basa, and Beni-Amer, with a particular glance at the races of Bellad Sudan 1852

African wanderings; or, An expedition from Sennaar to Taka, Basa, and Beni-Amer, with a particular glance at the races of Bellad Sudan

Life, Wanderings and Labours in Eastern Africa by Charles New 1873

Life, Wanderings and Labours in Eastern Africa by Charles New 1873

Life, wanderings, and labours in Eastern Africa : with an account of the first successful ascent of the equatorial snow mountain, Kilima Njaro, and remarks upon East African slavery

Tuesday, 7 July 2020

Osman Saleh Sabbe interviews with Günter Schröder 1980/1983

Osman Saleh Sabbe interviews with Günter Schröder 1980/1983

المقابلات التي اجراها الباحث الاماني قونتر شرودر مع عثمان صالح صببي ١٩٨٠ و ١٩٨٣

Saturday, 27 June 2020

تقرير لجنــة مجلــس الأمــن بشأن الصومال وإريتريا يوليو ٢٠١١ S/2011/433

  تقرير لجنــة مجلــس الأمــن بشأن الصومال وإريتريا يوليو ٢٠١١

 ٣٥٨ - ولا يعدو الاتجار بالأسلحة انطلاقا من إريتريا الغربية أن يكون مجرد عنـصر في عمليـة هتريب أوسع نطاقـا بكـثير ومربحـة للغايـة، يـشرف عليهـا اللـواء تـيكلاي كيفلـي “مـانجوس ”، قائد المنطقة العسكرية الغربية (انظر أيضا الفقـرات ٢٦٢ ،و ٣٣٠ ،و ٣٦٢ أعـلاه، و ٣٦٢، و ٤١٦ ،و ٤٢٠ أدناه). ونظيره السوداني الرئيسي في هذا النشاط العابر للحـدود هـو مـبروك مبـارك سـليم، وزيـر الدولـة الحـالي للنقـل في الـسودان، وهـو أيـضا تـاجر ثـري وزعـيم سـابق للجماعة المتمردة المنحلّة المسماة “الأسود الأحرار”، التي كانت تـشكل في الـسابق جـزءا مـن تحالف المعارضـة الـسودانية في “الجبهـة الـشرقية”، المـدعوم مـن إريتريـا. ويعمـل سـليم، الـذي ينحدر مـن قبيلـة الرشـايدة، بـشكل وثيـق مـع مهـربين مـن الرشـايدة لهـم قـدم راسـخة في هـذا . (٢٨٩ (المضمار، وينشطون بعلم تام من المسؤولين الحكوميين على الجانبين كليهما من الحدود 

UN Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea Report July 2011

Letter dated 20 June 2011 from the members of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea addressed to the Chairman of the Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 751 (1992) and 1907 (2009) concerning Somalia and Eritrea

358. Arms trafficking from western Eritrea is just one component of a much
broader, and highly profitable, smuggling operation overseen by General Teklai
Kifle “Manjus”, Commander of the western military zone (see also paras. 262 and
330 above and 362, 416 and 420 below). His principal Sudanese counterpart in this
cross-border activity is Mabrouk Mubarak Salim, the current Minister of State for
Transport of the Sudan, who is also a wealthy merchant and former leader of the
now defunct “Free Lions” rebel group that once formed part of the Sudanese
“Eastern Front” opposition alliance supported by Eritrea. Salim, an ethnic Rashaida,
works closely with other well-established Rashaida smugglers, who operate with the
full knowledge of Government officials on both sides of the border.289

The full report:

Wednesday, 24 June 2020

ዓብደላ ሐሰን ፥ ታሪኽ ጅግንንት ተጋዳላይ ፥ ብ 1971 መንደቅ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ካርቸሊ ኣስመራ ብምንኮል ዘምለጡ ተጋዳልቲ Abdella Hassen's heroic journey of Struggle

ዓብደላ ሐሰን ፥ ታሪኽ ጅግንንት ተጋዳላይ ፥ ብ 1971 መንደቅ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ካርቸሊ ኣስመራ ብምንኮል ዘምለጡ ተጋዳልቲ 

ግዕዞ ታርኽ ቃልሲ ካብ ምምራሕ ቃልሲ ተማሃሮ አስመራ አብ 1960s ናብ ሜዳ ናብ ስርሒታት ፍዳእይን ከተማ አስመራ ናብ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ካቸሊ ናብ ሜዳ

"ምስ ብጻይ ስዉእ ሁማድ ዓምር ኢድሪስ (ካብሊ) ካብ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ካርቸሊ ናይ ኣስመራ ኩዒትና ዛወጻእናሉ ዕለት13/4/1971   ኔሩ።  ኣነ ብጻይ ገረዛጊሄር ተወልደ ምስ ተታሕዜ ተፈሊጠ ስለዝነበርኩ ኣምሊጠ ዕለት 14/4/1967 ንሜዳ ወጺኤ፣ ብዕለት 28/10/1970 ብጸላኢ ተተሓዝኩ ።

The heroic story of a freedom fighter's journey from a student leader in Asmara in the 1960s to the field to being a fedayeen in Asmara, the capture by the enemy, and the escape from the notorious Carsheli prison in 1971 by digging the walls of the prison. Plus Abdella Hassen Interview with German researcher Günter Schröder.
The well-guarded Carshelli  prison, Asmara
Abdella Hassen (left) and Humed Amer Idris (right)

Abdella Hassen (left) and Gerezgher Tewolde (right)

Tigrinya document:

Abdella Hassen Interview with German researcher Günter Schröder:

عبدالله حسن علي قصة بطولات مناضل

 :عبدالله حسن علي
قصة بطولات مناضل
رحلة من نضالات الحركة الطلابية بأسمرا في الستينات، الى الإنضمام الى جبهة التحرير الإرترية، الى العمل الفدائ بأسمرا، الى 
السجن، ثم الهروب الأسطوري من سجن أسمرا، بحفر حيطة السجن، ثم العودة الى الميدان في السبعينات

وعندما انكشف امري وتم القبض على زمیلي جریزقھیر تولدي خرجت إلى المیدان وكان ھذا بتاریخ ١٤ أبريل ١٩٦٧م

ھروبي من سجن ماركاتو مع زمیلي الشھید ھمد عامر ادریس (كابلي) عن طریق الحفر كان بتاریخ 13/4/1971م

رحلة فى الذاكرة مع الفدائ المناضل عبدالله حسن

Sunday, 7 June 2020

ኣባይና ሳዋ ልካይድ ሴማ እንደይ ተሓገዛ 1853 ጸላኢና ሳዋ ይውረድ ملعون من أجبر على الذهاب إلى ساوا

ኣባይና  ሳዋ  ልካይድ  ሴማ እንደይ  ተሓገዛ 1853*

ጸላኢና ሳዋ ይውረድ ትርጉም ካብ ቓንቓ ትግራይት

ግጥሚ ደርመስ ወድ ትንሥኤው መንሳዕ ቤት አብርሀ 1853
እዛ ግጥሚ እዚኣ ኣብ ግዜ ወራራት ግብጺ ኣብ ምዕራባዊ ቆላታት ኤርትራ ዝተጻሕፈት እያ። ዝተጨውዩ ሰባት ክረድኡ ንሳዋ ወሪዶም ምስተመልሱ ዝጻሓፍዋ እያ። ክልተ ካብ ሓሙሽተ ጥንታውያን ንግስነታት ቤጃ (Beja kingdoms**) አብ ናይ ሎሚ ኤርትራ ምንባረን ዝዝከር ኮይኑ ፣ ኣብ ሐንቲ ካብ፤አተን መደብር ወተሃደራዊ ታዕሊም መእሰያት ኣብ ኣብ ሳዋ ነይርዋ ።

“Cursed is the one who is forced to go to Sawa” is a poem in Tigrait by Dermas wed Tensaew in 1853. The poem was written during the Egyptian occupation of the western lowlands where they killed and abducted people. The poet and his companions went to find the abducted to Sawa and found out they had been taken to Sudan. He wrote the poem when they came back from Sawa. Their description fits today’s Sawa and its environs. It worthy to note that two of the ancient Beja Kingdoms were in present Eritrea and in one of them, Sawa was a military training outpost.

م"ملعون من أجبر على الذهاب إلى ساوا" قصيدة  بالتيقرايت الفها درماس ود تينسؤ عام ١٨٥٣. كتبت القصيدة أثناء الاحتلال المصري لأراضي المنخفضة الغربية حيث قتلوا واختطفوا الناس. ذهب الشاعر ورفاقه للعثور على المختطفين إلى ساوا واكتشفوا أنهم نقلوا إلى السودان. كتب القصيدة عندما عادوا من ساوا. يناسب وصفهم اليوم ساوا وضواحيها. وتجدر الإشارة إلى أن اثنتين 
من ممالك البجا القديمة كانتا في مايعرف بإريتريا اليوم ، وفي أحدهما كانت ساوا مركزًا عسكريًا للتدريب.د

*Enno Littmann, Publication of the Princeton Expedition to Abyssinia, Vol. III, Tigre Text, Leyden, 1913, pp. 22-23. 

Five Independent Beja Kingdoms between the Nile and the Red Sea ]1]

Al-Ya‘qubi, in his history which was composed about A.D. 872, gives a description of the political situation in the north of this region in his own time after the Beja overrunning of part of the Axumite kingdom. [2] Between the Nile and the Red Sea were five independent kingdoms.

The first, called Naqis, extended from the Nile near Aswan to the lower Baraka. Its capital, Hajar, was visited by the Muslims for trading purposes.[3] The various Beja tribes in the kingdom were the Hadareb, Hiab,’Ama’ar, [4] Kawbar, Manasa (Mensa?), Rasifa, ‘Arbarb’a, and Zanafaj [5]. In their country were mines of gold and precious stones worked by Muslims with whom they were on good terms.

Next came the Baqlin (Rora Baqla?), covering the Eritrean Sahil, the Rora region of the plateau, and the middle course of the Baraka. Their religion resembled that of the Magians and Dualists. They called God Az-Zabjir [6] and the Devil Sahay Haraqa.

The third kingdom was called Bazin in the region between the Christian Nuba kingdom of ‘Alwa and the Baqlin with whom they were formerly at war. The Bazin were possibly the Kunama who are called Bazen by the Abyssinians.

The fourth, called Jarin, had a powerful king whose rule extended from the coastal town called Badi [7]

The fifth, called Qaţ’a, was the last Beja kingdom and extended from the border of Badi’ to a place called Faykun. They were a brave and powerful people and had a military training school called dar as-sawa where the young men were trained in arms. These tribes were all pagan with the exception of the southernmost who were Christians subject to the Abyssinian king.

The gradual spread of Islam amongst the Beja began with the settlement of Muslims in the mining district. Maqrizi records that the excursion of the Beja against Egypt let to the governor of Aswan sending ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Jahm against them. He concluded a treaty with their chief, Kanun ibn ‘Abdal-‘Aziz, whose headquarters was at Hajar in the year A.H. 216 (A.D. 831). His account shows that the Arab traders and mine owners who were active in northern Beja territory may have influenced the chiefs, and that mosques for the benefit of these Muslims existed, two of which are named, one at Hajar, the capital of Naqis, and another at Şinjat.



]1] Carlo Conti Rossini, Storia D’Etiopia, Bergamo, Istituto Italiano D’Arti Grafiche,1928, pp.265-280.

]2] Al-Yaqubi, Historiae (ed. Houtsma,1883), I,217-19; Trimingham, J. Specer, Islam in Ethiopia, London, Frank CASS, 3rd ed.1976,p.49

]3] Al-Yaqubi, Kitab al-Bulda, ed. De Goeje, in B.G.A., vii (1892), 336. Hajar has not been identified, but it was probably in the Red Sea Hills in the neighborhood of Sinkat.

]4] Possibly the Amar’ar who now live in the region around Port Sudan.

]5] In his K. al-Buldan (pp.336-7), which was composed a little later in A.D. 891-2, Al-Ya’qubi places the Zanafaj in the country of Baqlin, ‘the town where the king of the Zanafija resides is called Baqlin which the Muslims visit occasionally for trading. Their rite (madhhab) is like that of the Hadariba. They have no revealed law and merely worship an idol called hahakhawa.

]6] V.II. az-Zabahir, al-Bahir, possibly the Eth. Egzi’aheher; cf. Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadhani, K. al-Buldan, B.G.A. v. 78

  1. ]7] Crowfoot identifies Badi with Airi (Ar-Rib) near ‘Aqiq (‘Some Red Sea Ports…’, Geog.Jour. xxxvii, 1911,542ff), while Wiet identifies it with Massawah, which even today is called Batsi in Tigre and Badi in Bedawie. 


Thursday, 4 June 2020

The Daring ELF Operation of Haikota July/August 1963

The Daring ELF Operation of Haikota  July/August 1963


An ELF unit led by Adem Mohamed Hamid planned to attack and take control of the police station in Haikota. At the beginning of the armed struggle, it was the police force that got engaged with the ELF units. The Haikota Station was an essential outpost for that purpose. An ELF fighter, Mebrahtu Tseggai, from Bogo nicknamed, Getaa 'ገታእ', was sent to Haikota to survey the possibility and collect information.  When he finished his mission, he reported to the Head of the unit Adem Mohamed Hamid, nicknamed ‘Gendifil’-elephant soldier that it was possible.  Gendefil then went to Haikota disguised as a mad person and confirmed it was indeed feasible. Before the operation, a policeman from Bushuka station, Omer Dini, had defected to the ELF with some weapons.

According to the plan, the unit stopped a passenger bus near Haikota. The bus was on its way to Tessenei. The driver was Abu Humed. The fighters, some of them unarmed, known then as ‘Kolei’ stopped the bus before it reached Haikota. They politely asked all the passengers to disembark near a place with Trees and water. They took over the van and drove to Haikota, singing marriage songs. They stopped in front of the police station and immediately attacked and took control of the station. In the exchange, there were some casualties in the police.  But not from the fighters. The police were taken by surprise.

The fighters took 35 rifles (Abu Ashara), 60 hand grenades, and two light machine guns for the first time. They drove the bus into the wilderness, but the bus got stuck in a river-bed, not far from the town. So they had to carry all the weapons for a long distance. This incident paved the way for the battle of Togoruba that took place on 15th March 1964, which was the first confrontation with the Ethiopian army.  

Gendefil, who was born in the village of Shalab in 1935, joined the Sudanese Defence Forces in 1953. He met Awate in Hawasheit on 28/9/1961. He passed away on 17.04.1996

A short biography on Gendefil , in Arabic.

Source: ELF records and interviews with persons who knew about the operation

Sunday, 17 May 2020

إدريس محمد آدم في مقابلة مع الباحث الالماني، جونتر شرودر مارس 1989

إدريس محمد آدم في مقابلة مع الباحث الالماني، المهتم بقضايا القرن الإفريقي، جونتر شرودر

الزمان / المكان:مارس 1989 / الخرطوم يتحدث فيها عن بدايات الثورة

شكرًا لود عثمان لترجمة المقابلة إلى العربية

Monday, 11 May 2020

Günter Schröder Interview with Tesfay Weldemikael "Dagiga' 1989_1991

Günter Schröder Interview with Tesfay Weldemikael "Dagiga' 1989_1991 

Different Aspects of the History of the Eritrean Revolution:

  • The youth and student movement in Asmera in the early '70s and how and when he joined the ELF
  • ELF Fedaayin Administration before 1975 
  • Background of some Revolutionary Council (RC) Members
  • The political situation in Eritrea and the other political movements in 1991
  • On the relations of ELF with TPLF and EPRP

Monday, 2 March 2020

An Unfinished African Dream/ Eritrea: Ancient Times To 1968

An Unfinished African Dream/ Eritrea: Ancient Times To 1968 by Mohamed Kheir Omer, published 2020 by LuLu Publishing Services, based in the USA

One minute summary:

Amazon author page:

Book website:

Book interview in English:

Book Review by Pen Eritrea:

Book interview in Tigrinya:

Book interview in Arabic: 

عرض لكتاب دينامكيات حلم أفريقي غير مكتمل إريتريا: من العصور القديمة حتى 1968 Part I

عرض لكتاب دينامكيات حلم أفريقي غير مكتمل إريتريا: من العصور القديمة حتى 1968  Part II

Book interview in Amharic Part I:

Book interview in Amharic part II:

Book Interview with Tempo Africtv:

Available at:

Available at:

Book Review by Prof. Tekeste Negash:

Saturday, 29 February 2020

Tigrinya Applicatives in Lexical-Functional Grammar by Nazareth Amlesom

Tigrinya Applicatives in Lexical-Functional Grammar, a 2011 PhD Thesis by Nazareth Amlesom, Department of Linguistic, Literary and Aesthetic Studies University of Bergen

Part of the Abstract:

The primary goal of this thesis is to describe and analyze applicative constructions in Tigrinya. An applicative construction is characterized by a verb that bears an affix for an argument that either has a semantic role that is not normally entailed by the lexical meaning of the base verb or is specified as a peripheral argument. The choice of an applicative expression is motivated by semantic and discourse factors. Applicatively expressed arguments are associated with referents that possess high semantic prominence and discourse salience. The applicative phenomenon is viewed as a morphosyntactic strategy that introduces a core object function that is salient in the discourse event described by the verb. The theoretical motivation of this study is to explore the conditions that trigger object marking in Tigrinya so as to examine the semantic, functional and discourse properties of objects. The main theoretical framework used in this research is Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG). This formalism assumes that the different linguistic information pertaining to functional, semantic and discourse structures can be modeled as interrelated parallel representations.

Saturday, 15 February 2020



Eritrea is the only country in Africa that has no civil strife, but yet produces the largest number of refugees

Sunday, 19 January 2020

Eritrea: Miscellaneous historical Documents from the 40s & 50s

Eritrea: Miscellaneous historical Documents from the 40s & 50s

Abdulgadir Kebire replying to a person who accused him in the Ethiopian sponsored newspapers

 British Statistics on Casualties due to Shifta activities and casualties inflicted on them
1948 - April 1950
 Police Commissioner authorizing the flying of the Muslim League flag 1951
  Police Commissioner's copy to Ibrahim Sultan authorizing the flying of the Muslim League flag 1951

Thanks to Jelal Yassin for sharing