Saturday, 27 June 2020
Letter dated 20 June 2011 from the members of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea addressed to the Chairman of the Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 751 (1992) and 1907 (2009) concerning Somalia and Eritrea
Wednesday, 24 June 2020
ዓብደላ ሐሰን ፥ ታሪኽ ጅግንንት ተጋዳላይ ፥ ብ 1971 መንደቅ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ካርቸሊ ኣስመራ ብምንኮል ዘምለጡ ተጋዳልቲ Abdella Hassen's heroic journey of Struggle
Abdella Hassen Interview with German researcher Günter Schröder:
رحلة فى الذاكرة مع الفدائ المناضل عبدالله حسن
Thursday, 11 June 2020
تٱريخ اليعقوبي المجلد الٱول، ممالك البجة ٢١٧ الى ٢١٩
Thanks to Abdo Humed for sharing
Sunday, 7 June 2020
Five Independent Beja Kingdoms between the Nile and the Red Sea ]1]
Al-Ya‘qubi, in his history which was composed about A.D. 872, gives a description of the political situation in the north of this region in his own time after the Beja overrunning of part of the Axumite kingdom.  Between the Nile and the Red Sea were five independent kingdoms.
The first, called Naqis, extended from the Nile near Aswan to the lower Baraka. Its capital, Hajar, was visited by the Muslims for trading purposes. The various Beja tribes in the kingdom were the Hadareb, Hiab,’Ama’ar,  Kawbar, Manasa (Mensa?), Rasifa, ‘Arbarb’a, and Zanafaj . In their country were mines of gold and precious stones worked by Muslims with whom they were on good terms.
Next came the Baqlin (Rora Baqla?), covering the Eritrean Sahil, the Rora region of the plateau, and the middle course of the Baraka. Their religion resembled that of the Magians and Dualists. They called God Az-Zabjir  and the Devil Sahay Haraqa.
The third kingdom was called Bazin in the region between the Christian Nuba kingdom of ‘Alwa and the Baqlin with whom they were formerly at war. The Bazin were possibly the Kunama who are called Bazen by the Abyssinians.
The fourth, called Jarin, had a powerful king whose rule extended from the coastal town called Badi 
The fifth, called Qaţ’a, was the last Beja kingdom and extended from the border of Badi’ to a place called Faykun. They were a brave and powerful people and had a military training school called dar as-sawa where the young men were trained in arms. These tribes were all pagan with the exception of the southernmost who were Christians subject to the Abyssinian king.
The gradual spread of Islam amongst the Beja began with the settlement of Muslims in the mining district. Maqrizi records that the excursion of the Beja against Egypt let to the governor of Aswan sending ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Jahm against them. He concluded a treaty with their chief, Kanun ibn ‘Abdal-‘Aziz, whose headquarters was at Hajar in the year A.H. 216 (A.D. 831). His account shows that the Arab traders and mine owners who were active in northern Beja territory may have influenced the chiefs, and that mosques for the benefit of these Muslims existed, two of which are named, one at Hajar, the capital of Naqis, and another at Şinjat.
]1] Carlo Conti Rossini, Storia D’Etiopia, Bergamo, Istituto Italiano D’Arti Grafiche,1928, pp.265-280.
]2] Al-Yaqubi, Historiae (ed. Houtsma,1883), I,217-19; Trimingham, J. Specer, Islam in Ethiopia, London, Frank CASS, 3rd ed.1976,p.49
]3] Al-Yaqubi, Kitab al-Bulda, ed. De Goeje, in B.G.A., vii (1892), 336. Hajar has not been identified, but it was probably in the Red Sea Hills in the neighborhood of Sinkat.
]4] Possibly the Amar’ar who now live in the region around Port Sudan.
]5] In his K. al-Buldan (pp.336-7), which was composed a little later in A.D. 891-2, Al-Ya’qubi places the Zanafaj in the country of Baqlin, ‘the town where the king of the Zanafija resides is called Baqlin which the Muslims visit occasionally for trading. Their rite (madhhab) is like that of the Hadariba. They have no revealed law and merely worship an idol called hahakhawa.
]6] V.II. az-Zabahir, al-Bahir, possibly the Eth. Egzi’aheher; cf. Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadhani, K. al-Buldan, B.G.A. v. 78
- ]7] Crowfoot identifies Badi with Airi (Ar-Rib) near ‘Aqiq (‘Some Red Sea Ports…’, Geog.Jour. xxxvii, 1911,542ff), while Wiet identifies it with Massawah, which even today is called Batsi in Tigre and Badi in Bedawie.