Friday, 30 January 2015

What Ferdinado Martini wrote about Bahta Hagos (period 1891 -1895)

What Ferdinado Martini wrote about Bahta Hagos (period 1891 -1895)

Bahta Hagos 1891 with local dignitaries and an Italian army officer
This was what he wrote when Bahta was an ally of Italy (1891):

Our destination was Segeneiti and Bahta Hagos met us half the way. Behind him was his brother and his son Geremedhin was also there. Bahta was in his mid forties. He was tall and thin. When you look at him you get the impression that he is cunning and crocked.  But his land that extends from here to Mereb, doesn't know any one who was more honest than him. He converted to Catholicism with his Muslim wife. His new faith bestowed on him a greater degree of  integrity. There is no chief in his caliber in the area. One word from him would put an end to any conflict. Every body respects him and submits to his rule because he is humble, generous and committed to his friends and us, the Italians. He shows less pride than the other Eritrean chief's because he is more intelligent than them. Lastly, Bahta Hagos is not a saint because he killed his brother.
He belongs to one of the old families in Akle Guzai. Ras Alula harassed and followed him and Bahta Hagos took refuge together with his brothers with the Habab. Because the Habab were pastoralists, Bahta and his men protected the tribes from other invaders. After Bahta and his group were allowed to return to their homeland, one of his brothers wanted to be a robber to earn his living. Bahta tried to persuade his brother to stop robbery and help the family establish their rule in their land. He told his brother that by doing so they will be able to win more friends and to show in front of God that they will regain liberty for their people. His brother refused to listen.  Later  Bahta resorted to threats.  He told his brother that he will either kill him or will he will surrender to Alula to kill him. His brother told Bahta, 'Go and surrender to Alula'. Bahta Hagos spent that night praying to God and at dawn went and killed his brother. But now he repents that and at times he suffers of nervous episodes. Unlike all the leaders that we met who treat their subjects with brutality, he resorts to asking for apology after any harsh measure, and treats his subjects like a father. 

You cannot describe the Abyssinians through the character of Bahta Hagos. He was an exceptional character.
And this is what Martini  wrote about him after he fought the Italians (March 1895):

What I wrote about him in 1891 was based on my own observations and based on the Italian officials who knew him closely. Ludwigi Marcatelli  from Asmara wrote in the Newspaper 'Tribuna' on 12 February 1895, "If there was any one who had doubts about Bahta Hagos, no person could have believed him. Yet, he rebelled against us. What he did was not a sudden thing or a revenge. He must have planned this over a long time to kill the whites who had stayed at Segeneiti and who respected him. We paid him a decent pension and we showered him with a lot of gifts, some of which were expensive. We bestowed on him the highest authority and  honours that was never given to any Abyssinian before him. Yet he died fighting us near Halai on the 18th of december.

It is said that the Frech Jesuits encouraged him to revolt against us. They were angered by our decision to drive them out of Eritrea. This may be possible , because Bahta loved them and converted to the Catholic faith on their hands. He had also contributed towards buliding a church in Akhrur. But I do not believe this was the only or the main important reason for his revolt. The day he decided to cut the negotiations with us and imprisoned Captain Sagouini and moved with his forces to Halai; He sent a message to the whole of Akleguzai. The messengers told the people, "We are going to liberate you from those who came from across the sea to take our land, and my move is coordinated with Ras Mengesha who is coming to support us with a force. I did not take a move until now because I was waiting for a response from a distant place.."

This is an important point, as I explained before,  the Italian families that came were given land in Seraye, near Akle Guzai in the area that was under Bahta Hagos and he did not like this. Other Italians were also given 25 hectares from Akle Guzai. He wrote three letters to Menelik, complaining about the confiscation of land and asking for his permission to attack the Italains. If Menelik did not agree, he asked him to raise the complaint to Italy. Menelik replied twice asking for patience and that he was waiting for a response from Italy. It is not known if Menelik gave the permission for the attack, but he sent 35 thousand rifles to Ras Mengesha.
 From Ferdinando Martini’s memories and impressions in his book, ‘Nell’Affrica Italiane’ 1890.
He was a member of the Italian Parliament who was sent to evaluate the viability of Eritrea, as a colony. Pages 102 - 106 from the Arabic translated edition

Thursday, 29 January 2015

لماذا وكيف هاجمة قوات المهدية البني عامر 1890 The Mahdist army & the Beni Amer

لماذا وكيف هاجمة قوات المهدية البني عامر

من انطباغات وذكريات فرديناندو مارتيني (نائب في البرلمان الأيطالي وعضو في لجنة التحقيق الملكية في ارتريا , كما ورد في كتاب ارتريا في افريقيا الأيطالية 1896) ص 136 – من الترجمة العربية

يقول " بعد ان استسلم دقلل البني عامرباءسم قبائله للقوات الأيطالية في اوئل 1890 , ارسل المهدي يستدعيه الي كسلا, والذهاب الي كسلا التي كانت يومها منارة الثورة الأسلامية المتطرفة, بعد تقديم الطاعة لأيطاليا , كان يعني الموت الأكيد. غير ان الدقلل لم يعترض  ولم يذهب الي كسلا. وذات يوم في يونيو جاء حوالي الألف من الدراويش خارجيين من انتصارهم  في معركة "متمه" والتي قتل فيها الملك يوهنس والتي كان يقودها ابراهيم فرج الله وقاطر ديمدان , وهجمو علي "زقا" فأستولو علي كميات من الأسلحة وخطفو 500 امرأة وقتلو العديد من الناس, ومن بينهم الدقلل نفسه وزعيم قبيلة عمران الشيخ ايغل, .كانت العملية سهلة لأنها كانت مفاجئة...وبعدها ارتد الدراويش الي ممر دانتاي.
حضرت قوة ايطالية للنجدة والقو القبض علي بعد من مقاتلي الدراويش واستجوبتهم ولكنهم التزمو الصمت رغم تهديدهم بالقتل وتم قتلهم صامتين غير ان أحدهم صرخ عند قتله بي "لا أله الي الله ومحمدا رسول الله ومحمد احمد المهدي خليفة رسول الله". وفي النهاية تكلم احد العبيد واسمه عبدالله وطلب انقاذ حياته وقادهم الي مكان تواجد المهدي , حيث هزمتهم القوات  الأيطالية. ومن قوة كانت حوالي الألف لم يعد منهم الي كسلا  الا حوالي ٦٠ شخصا

How and why the Mahdist army attacked the Beni Amer 1890

 Ferdinando Martini’s memories and impressions in his book, ‘Nell’Affrica Italiane’ 1890 .

He was a member of the Italian Parliament who was sent to evaluate the viability of Eritrea, as a colony.

"After the Deglal (tribal chief) of the Beni Amer surrendred to the Italian troops early 1890. The Mahdi summoned the Deglal to Kassala.  Going to Kassala, which was the Center of Islamic Extremism then (according to Ferdinando) after surrendering to Italy, meant definitely death. The Deglal neither objected nor went to Kassala . One day in June, came about a thousand of the Mahdi army after their victory with the forces of Atze Yohannes at the battle of ‘Metema’ where Yohannes was killed: The army was led by Ibrahim Faraj Allah and Gatir Dimdan. They  attacked the Beni Amer by surprise. They killed many including the Deglal, abducted 500 women and confiscated large  quantities of weapons

An Italian force came to the rescue and they arrested a few of the Dervish fighters and questioned them, threatening to kill them if they did not speak. They kept silent and were killed but one of them shouted declaring "there is no God to Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and Muhammad Ahmad Al Mahdi is his Caliphate." In the end, one slave named Abdullah spoke and asked that his life be saved and led them to the whereabouts of al-Mahdi army, where they were  defeated the Italian forces.”    

From a force of about 1000, only about 60 of the returned to Kassala                

Wednesday, 28 January 2015

United Nations Flag Raised in Asmara 09 February 1951

نداء إنساني بخصوص عمليات اختطاف اللاجئين الارتريين في معسكرات الشجراب 2012

نداء إنساني بخصوص عمليات اختطاف اللاجئين الارتريين في معسكرات الشجراب  2012 الخميس, 16 آب/أغسطس
نداء انساني بخصوص عمليات اختطاف اللاجئين الارتريين في معسكرات الشجراب ، وجهته الى كافة اصحاب الضمائر الحية في الحكومة السودانية ، والمعارضة ، وكافة منظمات المجتمع المدني والشخصيات الوطنية السودانية.

الفرق بين رعاة بركة ومواطني الحبشة: The pastoralists of Barca and the Abyssinians

الفرق بين رعاة بركة ومواطني الحبشة:

من انطباغات وذكريات فرديناندو مارتيني (نائب في البرلمان الأيطالي وعضو في لجنة التحقيق الملكية في ارتريا , كما ورد في كتاب ارتريا في افريقيا الأيطالية 1896) ص 138 – من الترجمة العربية

وكان الموضوع بعد ان هزم الأيطاليين المهدية في معركة اغردات:

يقول " كالعادة جاء زعماء القبائل؛ وبعضهم جاء من بعيد للسلام علينا. وكم يختلفون عن الأحباش في تقديم الأحترام . لأحباش بما فيهم اكبرهم رتبة ومركزا ينحنون امامك, يركعون, واحيانا يرتمون علي قدميك. في حين ان آخر رعاة بركة لايفعل اكثر من احناء رآسه ورفع يده الي صدره تحية. أهي الدماء العربية التي لا تزال ثجري في عروقهم؟ لا اعتقد اذ لايوجد في العالم من يفعل ما يفعله المصري للحصول علي بخشيش. أم انها الحرية والمشاركة الكاملة مع الطبيعة هي التي علمتهم هذا العنفوان؟ حتي ان البدوي, الذي طالما تفننت الأساطير بانفته وحريته في عزلة الصحراء الشاسعة, هوفى الواقع اكثر الشحاذين اصرارا واثارة, علي كل حال هناك فرق كبير بين رعاة بركة المسلمين ومواطني الحبشة"

The cultural differences between the pastoralists of Barca and the Abyssinians as described by Ferdinando Martini’s memories and impressions in his book, ‘Nell’Affrica Italiane’ 1896.
He was a member of the Italian Parliament who was sent to evaluate the viability of Eritrea, as a colony. He made those remarks after the battle of Agordat where the Italian forces defeaذted the Mahdist army.

He writes, “As usual the tribal chief came to see us, some from a distant. They were different from Abyssinians regarding greetings. The Abyssinians including those who are from the upper echelons, bow in front of you, they kneel, at times throw themselves at your feet. But the pastoralists of Barca, they do not do more than bow the head and hold their chest as a form of greetings: Is it the Arab blood which still runs in their veins? I do not think so. There is nothing the Egyptian can do to get tips 

or is it the freedom and the full interaction with nature that taught them this pride.”
I do not think there is a superior or inferior culture but different cultures have different perceptions. While bowing to some one is regarded as a show of respect in the Abyssinian culture, it is regarded as humiliating among the Beni Amer or in the lowlands generally. Among Muslims a person bows only to Allah (God).

Tuesday, 27 January 2015

Eritrea: A country but of extraordinary stories

Eritrea: A country but of extraordinary stories

Eritrea for me, is simply a country full of amazing individual stories of courage, determination, dedication, sacrifice, commitment, love, misery, betrayal, naivety,...and what have you. Despite its 120 years of age, as an entity, it has not yet matured neither into a 'country' or 'State'. Perhaps it is one of few countries (South Sudan is at least another new example heading the same way) where the people have given the best they had to be better, but ended up being more miserable

ذكري وفاة الأم/ زينب ياسين (A tribute to Mother Zeineb Yassin (1918 – 2005

ذكري وفاة الأم/ زينب ياسين
(1918 -2005)

السيدة المناضلة زينب ياسين ، ولدت بمدينة افعبت في عام 1918،
.توفيت الام "زينب ياسين" في يوم 28 يناير 2005 عام ، وووريت التراب بمدينتها افعبت
انضمت السيدة زينب برفقة زوجها وابنييها الى الثورة في عام 1977 وظلت تعمل في الخطوط الخلفية محرضة ومؤازرة المناضلين ما أهلها لاستحقاق لقب "ام المناضلين" ، كما تميزت بشكل فريد في مجال الشعر بلغة التجري ،.
بعد انسحاب الجبهة الشعبية من مدينة افعبت في بداية الثمانينات انتقلت السيدة زينب الى مدينة نقفا وعملت بها حتى تحرير اريتريا ،ثم عادت الى مدينة افعبت
ملخصة من منتديات فيوري ومنقولة من صفحة احمد الحاج بالفيسبوك

Thanks to Ahmed Al Haj for the reminder and the note

This song was a tribute to her:

A tribute to Mother Zeineb Yassin (1918 – 2005)

She passed away 10 years ago, this date (28.01.2005). She was born and grew up in Afabet. She joined the EPLF in 1977, together with her husband and her two sons. She worked behind the military lines supporting freedom fighters and mobilizing the people. She is well known for her revolutionary Tigrait poetry. She was known in the EPLF as the ‘Mother of the fighters’. After the EPLF withdrew from Afabet, she lived in Nakfa for most of the time, until independence day. Afterwards, she returned to her hometown, Afabet, and lived there until her death.

This is what wrote about her:

“Adey Zeinab Yassin is considered as the mother of Eritrea.  She was a simple but committed mother that Eritrea had ever seen during the harshest period our struggle for independence.  She stood firm and mothered our fighters to the best of her ability. Many fighters were touched by her strength, vigor, generosity and motherly qualities.   Most of all she was known for her words of wisdom and uplifting poetry.  She won the respect of all fighters and the people who knew her.” 

Monday, 26 January 2015

Kofi Annan with Eritrean religious leaders 2004

Picture of Eritrean religious leaders with Kofi Anann, 3rd of August, 2004 (UN Photo)

In the name of religion, many wars have been waged and many lives lost. Colonialism and slave trade were promoted under the banner of religion. Karl Marx referred to religion as the ‘opium of the people’. Rulers use religious leaders to pursue their goals. You expect religious leaders to be accountable to God, not to the rulers. May God bless Abune Antonios (88) who is under house arrest and Fathers: Mengeteab Tesfamariam, Tomas Osman, Kidane Yeabio and Fegremariam Hagos for speaking the truth. We expect the others to follow suit, better late than never.

Picture of Eritrean religious leaders with Kofi Annan, 3rd of August, 2004. Doesn't he look just like them
A short biography on Abune Antonios (born 927) who was the third Patriarch of the Eritrean Orthodox Church. He was forcefully deposed by the Eritrean government in 2007, still under house arrest:

A portrait: Jelal Yassin Aberra

A portrait: Jelal Yassin Aberra

The story of Jelal is not a personal one, but it is a narration of the struggle of the Jeberti to keep their faith and identity and their quest for knowledge. The first time I met him was several years ago at Café Providence in Oslo, known to many Eritreans there as Café ‘Al Jazaeeri’. It has taken its name from the many Algerians and Moroccans who frequent it. I was sitting alone when he joined me. Some of my friends had warned me he is as unfriendly and aggressive, but I always preferred to talk and listen to people before judging them. Our discussion led quickly to the issue of the Jeberti, which I later discovered that he had a lot of passion for. I listened attentively, I got a lot of new information and from that day on, I decided to learn more about them. He succeeded in changing some of the wrong perceptions I had. I admired his intellectual arguments, his honesty and loudly calling a spade a spade. Through him and my own interest to find the truth, I learned more about the historical oppression the Jeberti had been subjected to by Abyssinian rulers. I learned about their determination to keep their faith under very challenging circumstances and their struggle to define themselves the way they see it. 

That meeting led to several interactions and intellectual discussions on diverse issues.
One thing I admire about him is that he always likes to hold a low profile. He seldom talks about himself. It took quite a long time before I discovered that he was an EPLF fighter in the field and that he was injured six times, the last injury left him almost paralyzed for more than one year. It happened many times in discussions, in my presence, when PFDJ supporters who had not contributed any thing in the struggle would challenge him, ‘Keep quiet, what do you know about Eritrea to criticize the regime”. I learned how his great grandfather name  ‘Aberra’ was coined. His original name was Abrar, but his mother opted to change it to Aberra to protect him from forced conversion to Christianity when Atze Yohannes used force to convert Muslims to Christianity. I have read in a book written by an Egyptian Coptic Bishop where he writes that the Egyptian Coptic Church which used to administer the Ethiopian Orthodox Church had advised Atze Yohannes then against such practice. In the aftermath of the Anti-Muslim reign of terror of Atze Yohannes, Aberra decided to keep that name, so at to remind the forthcoming generations about the plight they have been subjected to. 

His late father who was a prominent Professor of Economics at the University of Asmara, was killed by the EPLF in January 1991 in the front of his house. Probably, his only crime was that he advocated the cause of Jeberti and worked for their recognition as a separate entity. Perhaps many do not know that Jelal’s mother is a Tigrait speaker, but when you know the struggle of the family for keeping their faith and Identity; you understand why he has a strong passion for the Jeberti.
Jelal is multi-lingual. He is fluent in Italian, Arabic, English and Norwegian, besides his language of Tigrinya. He is relatively not so fluent in his mother’s language, Tigrait. His family had a passion for education.  His grandfather was a successful businessperson who travelled frequently to Europe for business deals. His father was one of the few Eritreans who studied Economics at the American University in Beirut in 1948. Born in Asmara in 1957, Jelal went to a Koranic school (Khalwa) and to Michelangelo Buonarotti kindergarden, Sant Anna Asilo & Scuole elemntari and later studied high school at Vittorio Emanule. After he got asylum in Norway, in 1984, he continued his high school studies at Folkehøgskole at Telemark. He later took Social Anthropology course at the University of Oslo. He earned his B.Sc. in Information Technology from the University College of Oslo. In Norway, among other things, he worked as a technician and later as Administrator in various Cinema Houses in Oslo and as a translator, too.

He was politically active since early age. In 1972, when he was just 15 years old, he went with Mesfin Tedla Ogbit and Yonas Afworki to Tessenei to join the armed struggle, but they were arrested near the Sudanese border. Ejel Abdulrahman, who was the district officer there, intervened and they were released on bail. He had to go back to Asmara and pursued his studies. He was recruited by the EPLF in 1974 where he became an active member. He was in one of the first ‘Wahyos’- underground cells of the organization in Asmara. His group included Abdu Mohamed Ali, Yonas Afworki (Zobino), Solomon Zemichael and Berhan Nur Aberra. They used to collect money, distribute pamphlets, recruit new members, and get the medicines the organization required. Among those he guided to join the rebels was Siraj Ahmed Aberra, Simon Gebre Dingel, Zufan Araya and Jemil Mohamed Ali. 

When Solomon Zemichael was arrested they had to leave Asmara and joined the field by early 1975. There he took a short military training and was assigned to the army. His first assignment was in a platoon led by Ibrahim Affa. Later he served among others in a battalion headed by Woldenchael Haile. The political commissioner was Berakhi Gebresellasie. He also served in a platoon headed by Bitweded Abraha. In the field, he participated in many military operations with the Ethiopian army. After his sixth injury which left him paralysed for almost a year, he was assigned to the Information Department of the EPLF, where he served among other positions as head of the manual publishing unit and attended the 9th round course at the cadre school. He was later assigned as a representative of the EPLF Information Department in Port Sudan where he served until the end of 1983 when he abandoned the organization.

Jelal is a multi-faceted intellectual. You can discuss with him on any subject, including religion. Besides the Koran, he knows the Bible by heart. He often argues with believers and challenges them to read verse X or Y and at times, they get the surprise of their life. When you discuss with him about the Bible, you realize that those who are quick to criticize the Koran, need to read the Bible properly, as well. Thanks to him, I have read the Bible and have a copy of it. He has a collection of rare pictures and books on Eritrea. Unlike many others, who keep the pictures to themselves or are quick enough to sign them before release, he shares his collection freely. I have shared many of those pictures and historical documents with the public. Resoum Kidane has also shared many of those pictures. Many of his pictures are also posted at Some of his rare collections include the Italian book, ‘Who is Who in Eritrea 1952’ and an unpublished book by Sir Kennedy Travaskis, ‘The Deluge: A personal view of the end of Empire ‘. His friendship has broadened my knowledge about Eritrea and the world. It is not only about books and pictures; his musical library is rich with old and contemporary music from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan and Italy.

He is very social, full of sense of humour and has diverse friends, even among political components. He never speaks behind peoples back, but can be felt to be rude in stating the naked truth. If you go with him in Oslo, many persons who would love to chat with him, interrupt you. He has a fantastic memory and I am amazed at times, he looks at people and tells them details of what they have done when they were young or informs them about their relatives. He is very generous when it comes to financial contributions for political ends or in helping persons in need.  Tesfay Temenew acknowledged his support in his book.

We meet many people in our lives. Some simply pass by without leaving any trace, some leave traces and others imprint lasting impressions on us, and for me Jelal is one of them. I know of many clandestine political activities he had been involved in but it is not time to speak about them, at present. His political activism has also earned him some enemies even among some of those who claim to be justice seekers. However, his honesty and far sightedness has always protected him against defamation. Through him, I have been able to write notes about Girmai Wedi Filipo, Tewelde Redda and Mesfun Maare. I know he always likes to keep a low profile, but I hope he will excuse me for writing this note about him.

Eritrea is just full of such stories waiting to be written.
Mohamed Kheir

Sunday, 25 January 2015

And where is Ahmed Haj Ali? اين احمد حاج علي

Since the Eritrean (EPLF) flag was raised at the United Nations headquarters 28 May 1993, the EPLF/PFDJ Government has become a disgrace to the world. Check the United Nations records since that date and most of it is about aggressions of the Eritrean regime against its neighbours, about supporting terrorist activities in Somalia, about sanctions and what have you. The Eritrean regime has tarnished the image of Eritrea worldwide. Pictures showing the flag raising ceremony at the UN headquarters. Ahmed Al Haj Ali, who was Eritrea's first representative at the UN attending the ceremony. He was removed from that post shortly afterwards. He served among others as Minister of Labour and Human Welfare, Minister of Tourism,  Minister of Fisheries and Marine Resources.  At the time of his arrest after the events of 21 January 2013, he served as Minister of Energy and Mining.

منذ ان تم رفع علم اريتريا (الشعبية) في الامم المتحدة فقد اصبحت حكومة الشعبية مصدر مشاكل وأزمات في العالم. صور تظهر المناسبة ويظهر فيها احمد حاج علي الذي كان ممثل البلد انذاك. في المعتقل منذ 2013

The flags of Eritrea and Monaco were raised the same day

Saturday, 24 January 2015

The EPLF leaders that the PFDJ wants to erase from history

Mahmoud Sherifo (1993) and Petros Solomon (1994), Foreign Ministers then, heading the Eritrean delegations at the UN. The EPLF leaders that the PFDJ wants to erase from history. I watched  a program of the Tigray Region on EBC (Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation) yesterday commomerating the begining of the TPLF where the names and pictures of two dissidents from the TPLF (Gedey Zeratzion a Tigriyan of Eritrean origin and Aregawi Berhe) in the early 1980s were shown, as part of the history of the TPLF. But the PFDJ has never mentioned the names or shown any pictures of the G15. What a contrast! What a distortion of history! When both Gedey and Aregawi disagreed with the TPLF and argued for their opinions for more than a month and were 'defeated' intellectually, they were provided with enough money a vehicle that took them to Kassala. What a civilized act.

Shown in the above from right Petros Solomon, Saleh Kekia and Amare Tekle

Picture of Somali Youth with Tedla Bairu, Beyene Barkhi & Sheihk Suleiman 1949

Picture of Somali Youth representatives Ali Bin-Nour with Dej. Beyene Barakhi, Sheikh Suleiman El Deen Ahmed and Tedla Bairu at the UN Headquarters 1949
UN Photos

Thursday, 22 January 2015

The life and times of the legendary Eritrean singer Tekle Tesfazghi

The life and times of the legendary Eritrean singer Tekle Tesfazghi:

ታሪኽ ሂወት ነፍስሀር ትኽለ ተስፋዝጊ:

سلسلة حوار النخب 2012 الاختلافات بين مجتمعات المنخفضات والمرتفعات

جانب من الأمسية البالتوكية التي أقامتها غرفة الحوار الوطني الإرترية يوم السبت الموافق 13 أكتوبر 2012 والتي استضافت فيها الدكتور / محمد خير عمر والدكتور / يعبيو ولد ماريام .. بعنوان ( فرص بناء الشراكة الوطنية في ظل التعدد الثقافي والأجتماعي والسياسي في ارتريا ) حوار جاد وصريح بين نخبه من مثقفي المرتفعات ذوي الثقافة التجرنياوية ومثقفي المنخفضات ذوي الثقافة العربية. د. يعبيو لم يتمكن من المشاركة لأسباب فنية

مداخلات من الاخوة برهاني ولدقبرئل، علي محمد سعيد، الاستاذ محمود، ابراهيم قدم، فسهي ناير

Part I: سلسلة حوار النخب 1
Part II:  سلسلة حوار النخب 2
Part III: سلسلة حوار النخب 3

Part IV:سلسلة حوار النخب 4

لقد تم اضافة خمسة فقرات مداخلات من الاخوة برهاني ولدقبرئل، علي محمد سعيد، الاستاذ محمود، ابراهيم قدم، فسهي ناير
سلسلة حوار النخب 5
مداخلة برهاني ولدقبرئل

سلسلة حوار النخب 6

سلسلة حوار النخب 7

سلسلة حوار النخب 8

سلسلة حوار النخب 9

سلسلة حوار النخب 10

Wednesday, 21 January 2015

تكريما للشاعرة الراحلة الارترية الجيوبوتية شريفة العلوي

A note on the late Eritrean-Djiboutian Poet Sharifa Al Alawi

قناة الحوار عن لشاعرة الراحلة الجيوبوتية الارترية شريفة العلوي عند رحيلها

شريفة العلوي قصيدة العولمة , الادب العربي في ارتريا;

في ضيافة رابطة الشروق

السيرة الذاتية للشاعرة والاديبة الارترية شريفة عبدالرحمن عثمان  العلوي 
Sharifa Abdrman osman al Alawiشريفة العلوي من مواليد منطقة بدة القريبة من  مديىة عصب بارتريا. 
"بدأت الشاعرة العفرية شريفة العلوي دراستها الابتدائية وبداية المرحلة المتوسطة في المدرسة العراقية بجيبوتي ومن ثم انتقلت الى الجزيرة العربية واتمت بقية المراحل الدارسية على فترات متفاوتة نظرا لظروفها العائلية,  ولكنها لم تنقطع عن القراءة خلال تلك الفترة مما ساعدها على تطوير اللغة لديها وادراكها الواسع بها من خلال الاطلاع ومواكبة الأحداث في المحيطهاباالادبي والثقافو ولديها شهادة البكالوريوس في العلوم السياسية من الجامعة الامريكية في لندن بتقدير جيد جدا بالاضافة الى حصولها على الدبلوم الاداري الشامل الذي يشمل: مواد تجارية، حاسب آلي، لغة إنجليزية  بتقديرممتاز. 

بدأت الكتابة الادبية حين سنحت لها فرصة لنشرها في المواقع والمنتديات الادبية مما ساعد على غزارة انتاجها الادبي حيث تصل نصوصها الى ثلاثمائة نص بين الشعر والنثر والخاطرة والمقالة كما تتنوع الأفكار التي تتناولها هذه النصوص بين الفكر والاجتماع ومناقشة قضايا المحيط عامة من خلال رؤية ونظرة ثاقبة تدلل على مدى وعي المرأة الجيبوتية وتمسكها بالهوية العربية الاسلامية."

المؤهل العلمي: دبلوم الإدارة، بكلوريوس في العلوم السياسية، عضو اتحاد كتاب عرب انترنت، عضو اتحاد النساء جيبوتي، عضو رابطة قلم العفر، عضو رابطة الأدب الحديث لأبناء دقهلية، عضو الموسوعة الكبرى لشعراء العرب عضو الجمعية المصرية لرعاية المواهب. 

الدواوين: صدر عن دار طيوف للطباعة بالقاهرة ديوانها الأول العام الماضي باسم “زخرف البلح ومن نفس دار الطباعة صدر ديوانها الثاني “إلا أنا” للشاعرة العربية الإرترية الجيبوتية شريفة العلوي، ويحوي الديوان أربعين قصيدة تكشف عن قدرة شعرية متميزة وتصوير من نوع خاص. 

صدر عن دار طيوف للطباعة بالقاهرة الديون الشعرى الجديد للشاعرة الجيبوتية شريفة العلوى بعنوان   "إلا أنا" وهو الثانى بعد ديوانها (زخرف البلح) الذى صدر عن الدار نفسها فى العام الماضى 2010. ويتألف الديوان الواقع في حوالي مئة وأربعين صفحة من أربعين قصيدة تتسم بالتشكيل الشعري وتتتابع فيها الصور بحرفية أديبة تجيد الرسم بالكلمة وتكشف بحرفها عن قدرة عالية على تطويع المفردة ورسم معارجها في دنيا الإبداع. 

ويحمل الديوان عنوان القصيدة التي خاطبت فيها الشاعرة الوطن وحدثته كيف ان الجميع يعبر عن اّهاته  لم تكن هذه القصيدة الوحيدة التي تغنت فيها الشاعرة بوطنها فقد أسكنته من نصوصها الكثير ولعل أجملها " اسير على موجه العائم" والتي تتحدث عن بحار الوطن العربي كافة حيث لا فصل بين قطر وقطر، وفيه أيضا قصائد ظهرت فيها الحس العروبي للشاعرة مثل قصيدة "مازلت على الارض سماء" والتي تتغنت فيها بالقدس، وعقد على جيد الزمان" لمصر و " قل للعراق" في العراق، وواحدة للأسير الفلسطيني بصورة عامة وخاصة لباسم الخندجي بعنوان "هاك قلبي"، وأخرى في شرارة ربيع الثورات التي اطلقها البوعزيزي في تونس بعنوان "ولكل طاغية مكان بيننا"

وقد اقيم حفل في مكتبة المعادي بقلب مدينة القاهرة لتوقيع الديوان الذي نظمته جامعة الشعراء بالمعادي بالتعاون مع دار طيوف للنشر وشهده جمع كبير من الأدباء ورجال الفكر والثقافة فى مصر وجيبوتى وإريتريا فضلا عن رواد مكتبة المعادي التى تتوسط حديقة الحرية بحى المعادي القاهرة وأداره الشاعر المصرى المتميز إسماعيل بخيت رائد جامعة الشعراء.

توفت 2013

 الشاعرة على كسر حاجز الذاتية والخروج إلى القضايا الوطنية والإنسانية العامة التى تتيح لها الإسهام فى رقى جيبوتى حضاريا بل ورقي منطقة شرق إفريقيا بصفة عامة.
المفكر والمؤرخ واللغوى الجيبوتى المتميز الاستاذ حمد قبا مكي أعلن فى كلمة مقتضبة عن سعادته البالغة بتميز هذه الأديبة التى تمثل سفيرا فوق العادة لوطنها.
ومن المشاركات فى المؤتمر الثقافى الدولى حول ديوان (إلا أنا) النشطة السياسية والاجتماعية الإريترية كلثوم آدم التى أكدت أن سعادتها مضاعفة أولا بإبداع شريفة العلوى الشعرى، ثانيا بكونها امرأة وهى واحدة من رعاة الحركة النسوية فى إريتريا خاصة وشرق إفريقيا بصفة عامة ، لذلك فسعادتها بإبداع شريفة العلوى وحضورها الإنسانى إبداع مضاعف مزدوج المنطلقات.
كذلك فقد شهد المؤتمر مداخلات وشهادات من العديد من الأدباء حيث أكد الكاتب الصحفى والأديب الإريترى محمود أبو بكر على إعجابه بالتجربة الإبداعية لشريفة العلوى وحيا تمثيلها المشرف للأدب الإفريقى ، ومن المعروف أن محمود أبو بكر يعمل مراسلا صحفيا وإذاعيا لصحف وإذاعات جزائرية وفرنسية وأنه قدم مؤخرا كتابا مهما عن ثورة الخامس والعشرين من يناير فى مصر عنوانه (السادسة بتوقيت ميدان التحرير)
كذلك قدم الشاعر المصرى يحيى زكريا مداخلة أكد حيا فيها إبداع الشاعرة شريفة العلوى وهو الإبداع الذى تعرف عليه عبر شبكة الإنترنت قبل أن يقرأه فى ديوانيها المتتالين.
الأديب سعيد على أكد على شعوره بالفخر عند قراته نصوصها التي يجد فيها بصمة مختلفة عن المألوف , وأن ما تقدمه من إبداع شعرى ونثرى هو إبداع يشرف كل من ينتمى إلى الشاعرة بصلة.
بينما أكد الاستاذ محمد إبراهيم رئيس رابطة طلاب العفر في القاهرة والملقب ب (منصور) عن سعادته لا بعلاقة القربى فحسب بل بالانتماء الإفريقى عامة والشرق إفريقى بصفة خاصة للأديبة شريفة العلوى.
ومن الشباب الذين لفتت كلماتهم انتباه الكثيرين الطالب طه أحمد برعد طالب الطب الذى يعد مشروعه الروائى الأول والذى أكد أن الأدب عامة يعد المعلم الأعمق للتاريخ الإنسانى متقدما فى ذلك حتى على التاريخ ذاته، وأكد أنه رغم سعادته بشريفة العلوى شاعرة فإنه شعر بلون من الغيرة من الشعر وتمنى عليها أن تدخل باب الرواية التى يحبها وينتصر لها أيضا.
أما مفاجأة المؤتمر بحق فقد كانت الشابة فاطمة محمد ابنة الشاعر التى طلب إليها تقديم كلمة عن الشاعرة فقالت كلمات موجزة مست القلوب أعقبتها بقبلة على جبين الأم اعتبرها الحضور أجمل قصائد المؤتمر.
هذا وقد كان من بين الحضور المشاركين الأستاذ نيازى الذى نظم أسماء قصائد الشاعرة فى كلمة تحية وكذلك طاقم إدارة المكتبة الذى تبارى أعضاؤه إلى الاحتفاء بالشاعرة وهن السيدة إيمان مديرة المكتبة ومساعداتها السيدة علية والسيدة هويدا.
هذا وقد أثارت الإدارة غير التقليدية للحفل والمؤتمر من قبل الشاعر إسماعيل بخيت إعجاب الكثيرين حيث مزج التقديم للضيوف برؤاه النقدية بطرح أسئلة للحوار والنقاش شارك فيها معظم الحضور.
هذا وقد اختتمت فعاليا الحفل والمؤتمر بقيام الشاعرة بالتوقيع على نسخ الديوان للراغبين فى اقتنائه وهم كل حضور الحفل والمؤتمر.       

شهدت مكتبة المعادى بقلب مدينة القاهرة حفل توقيع تحول إلى ما يشبه المؤتمر الثقافى الدولى وكان محور الحفل والمؤتمر الاحتفاء

‘Except me I’ a book signing ceremony or an international conference on culure

Maadi Bookshop in Cairo witnessed a book signing ceremony  on 25 September that turned into something like a conference on international culture. ‘Except me’ is a collection of poetry in Arabic by the Eritrean-Djiboutian citizen Sharifa Alalawi. It is her second book.  Her first collection was ‘Decoration of dates’,

The ceremony was organized by the University of poets in Maadi in cooperation with the the Tiyouf Publishing House.  The ceremony was attended by many prominent writers from Egypt, Djibouti and Eritrea and those attending the Maadi Library. The event was chaired by Egyptian poet, Ismail Bekhit who chairs the University of poets.  The ceremony was opened by poetry readings by Sharifa.

Several persons gave speeches. Dr. Hashem El Shami focussed on the creativity of a poet, which he saw as an extension of her father’s creativity, who was one of the guardians  of the Arabic language in Djibouti .

The poet and literary critic Mohammed Abdel Aal, President of the League of Arab literature stressed his appreciation for the talent and the creativity of the poet.

The poet, Mr. Hassan, director of literary programs in Radio Egypt, appreciated  Sharifa’s linguistic expression power in Arabic though her mother tongue is Affar. The literary Egyptian figure, Sawsan Ismail Tantawi presented an extensive study on the poetry collection of Sharifa stating her great talent. The distinguished historian and professor of linguistics in  Djibouti, Makki Hamad stated in a brief speech he was very happy with the distinction of  the poet, indicating that she represents  Ambassador Extraordinary of her country. Among the participants was also the political and social Eritrean activist Kalthoum Adam who expressed her appreciation and pride in the poet as a woman and as one actively involved in promoting women issues in Eritrea and in East Africa. Among the participants was also the Eritrean writer Mahmoud Abubaker who is the International news editor of an Algerian newspaper and who recently published a book in Arabic on the recent Egyptian uprising entitled ‘ Six O’clock Tahrir time’ and many others also attended the event.

Tuesday, 20 January 2015

بين الرمضاء والنار.. مأساة اللاجئين الإرتيريين بالسودان

بين الرمضاء والنار.. مأساة اللاجئين الإرتيريين بالسودان
تقرير الحلقة من الجزيرة.نيت

تركوا بلادهم بسبب الحروب واضطهاد الحكام ولجؤوا إلى السودان بحثا عن الأمن والاستقرار، لكنهم وجدوا أنفسهم سجناء داخل معسكرات تفتقد أدنى شروط الحياة، إضافة إلى ما يعترضهم من عمليات خطف ومتاجرة بأعضائهم.. إنهم لاجئون قدم معظمهم من إرتيريا ويعيشون مأساة إنسانية كبرى سلطت عليها الضوء حلقة 20/8/2014 من برنامج "تحت المجهر".
يعيش أكثر من مائة ألف لاجئي إرتيري في شرق السودان، بعضهم منذ 1976 والبعض الآخر منذ 2010، حيث بدأ اللجوء إلى السودان منذ عام 1952، لكن الفرار الجماعي كان عام 1967 بسبب ما زال مستمرا حتى اليوم.
وبحسب مدير معتمدية اللاجئين حمد الجزولي فإن أعدادا كبيرة من اللاجئين عادت لبلدها طوعا بعد تحرير إرتيريا، لكن بعد خمس أو أربع سنوات بدأت موجة جديدة من اللجوء لشباب تتراوح أعمارهم بين 18 وثلاثين سنة.
كما يؤكد مدير الحماية بمعتمدية اللاجئين السر خالد محمود أن الموجة الجديدة بدأت عام 2004، حيث يستقبل السودان ما بين مائتين و250 طلب لجوء يوميا وما بين ثمانمائة وألف طلب شهريا.
وهناك أسباب عديدة للجوء، منها القمع والحرب في إرتيريا، وكذلك الخدمة العسكرية الإجبارية القاسية غير المحددة بمدة والتي تفرض على كل من ينهي دراسته الثانوية، وهو ما يشير إليه عبد الله صالح علي -وهو لاجئ في معسكر خشم الجربة منذ عام 1978- بقوله إن المدن الإرتيرية أصبحت مدن أشباح ليس بها سوى شيوخ تتراوح أعمارهم بين سبعين وثمانين.
وللاجئة أشير زروم في معسكر الشجراب منذ عام 2010 سبب آخر في ترك بلدها، فقد تعرضت للاغتصاب من طرف أحد أبناء المسؤولين وحملت منه، مما جعلها تهرب إلى السودان.
وتتولى مفوضة الأمم المتحدة لدعم اللاجئين دعم وتمويل معسكرات اللجوء في شرق السودان وعددها تسعة، ويقول كاي نيلسن مندوب المفوض السامي إن مهمة منظمته تتمثل في مساعدة الحكومة السودانية على التعامل مع اللاجئين والوافدين الجدد، وأكد أن تسعين ألف لاجئ يوجدون في شرق السودان، معظمهم من إرتيريا.

معاناة ومصير مجهول للاجئين الإرتيريين (الجزيرة)
غير أن هذا الدعم لا يلبي احتياجات اللاجئين الذي عبروا عن مأساتهم لحلقة "تحت المجهر"، فاللاجئ ميرهتور زكرياس يقول "سلمت نفسي للمنظمة الأممية للحماية وليس للمعاناة"، أما محمود عبد الحميد اللاجئ بمعسكر خشم الجربة منذ عام 1979 فيقول إنه لا يملك عشاء أولاده ويمضي قائلا "الشعب الإرتيري يموت.. البهيمة أفضل منه!"، ثم يجهش بالبكاء على حاله وحال شعبه.

خطف ومتاجرة
كما توجد مشاكل عديدة بمعسكرات اللجوء، فلا وظائف والتعليم لا يشمل كل الناس، إضافة إلى الأمراض الكثيرة التي يسببها تردي الخدمات الصحية، عدا شح المياه وعدم وجود الكهرباء، وفوق كل ذلك يمنع اللاجئ من الخروج من المعسكر إلا عن طريق التهريب.
ويرجع مدير الحماية بمعتمدية اللاجئين أسباب تردي الأوضاع إلى أن مفوضية اللاجئين التي قال إنها رفعت يدها عن دعم هذه المعسكرات لتصبح هذه الأخيرة عبئا على السودان، ويقول "لن نسمح ولن نتولى ملفات يفترض أن تقوم بها الأمم المتحدة"، فيما يرد مندوب المفوض السامي بالقول "لا تغيير في الخطط الخاصة بدعم اللاجئين".
وزيادة على مشاكلهم الكثيرة، يتعرض سكان المعسكرات لعمليات خطف من قبل قطاع طرق من "الرشايدة" الذين يتهمونهم بخطف الناس وتعذيبهم وأحيانا بقتلهم بعدما يتم نقلهم إلى سيناء المصرية، ويؤكد أحد المخطوفين أنهم تعرضوا للتعذيب على يد الخاطفين الذين يطالبون بالفدية، وأن الذي لا يمكنه الدفع يسرقون أعضاءه، ويقول إن أحد الأطباء المعروفين يتولى العملية بدون تخدير، مما أدى لوفاة العديد من الأشخاص.
ووسط هذه المشاكل يبقى اللاجئ الإرتيري معلقا بمصير مجهول، وهو ما يشير إليه أحد اللاجئين بمعسكر الشجراب بقوله "أحب إرتيريا، ولكن في مرات كثيرة أشعر بأنني لا أملك لا هوية إرتيرية ولا هوية سودانية.. هناك مصير مجهول".

The earliest Eritrean administrative districts (regions) during Italian rule 1890 - 1903

The earliest Eritrean administrative districts (regions) during Italian rule

Prior to 1903, Eritrea was divided into 4 districts: The lowlands and the three highland districts of Akle Guzai, Seraye and Hamassein. Between 1903 and 1906 Italian Governor, Martini created the Sahel, Gash-Setit, Assab and Barca districts:
Source: from a report to the Italian Parliament in 1913 as cited in Tekeste Negash's book, 'Italian Colonialism in Eritrea, 1882 - 1941', 1987

The ASMARA-MASSAWA CABLEWAY: The longest three-cable aerial line ever

The ASMARA-MASSAWA CABLEWAY: When Eritrea had the longest cableway in the world in 1938. The Massawa-Asmara cableway is now recognized as the longest three-cable aerial line ever constructed. It was dismantled by the British. 

اطول كابل معلق في العالم لترحيل البضائع في عام ١٩٣٨ وفريد من نوعه حتي الأن كان يربط بين مصوع واسمرا . قام الأنجليز بتفكيكه 
The cableway was built by the Italian engineering firm "Ceretti and Tanfani" in Eritrea. It connected the port of Massawa with the city of Asmara and ran a distance of some 75 kilometres. It moved food, supplies and war materials for the Imperial Italian Army then conquering Ethiopia. With the capacity to transport 30 tons of material every hour in each direction from the seaport of Massawa to 2326 meters above sea level in Asmara, the cableway was the longest of its kind in the world when was inaugurated in 1938. It had 13 sections, was powered by diesel engines, and carried freight in small transport gondolas. During their eleven-year occupation of the former Italian colony as a result of World War II, the British salvaged the diesel engines and removed other equipment. The towers remained until they were scrapped in the 1980s.
Source Wikipedia
Details of how it was built (30 pages) you find in this link. The link is also available at the comments section