Saturday, 29 August 2020

A Survey of the Beja Tribes by Farej Hamid Farej دراسة استقصائية عن قبائل البجا من قبل فرج حامد فرج

 

A Survey of the Beja Tribes by Farej Hamid Farej, a Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of Arts, University of Asmara 1971 



دراسة استقصائية عن قبائل البجا من قبل فرج حامد فرج، أطروحة مقدمة إلى كلية الآداب، جامعة أسمرة ١٩٧١ 

http://www.mediafire.com/file/dzgkcelc7z6z9w9/Survey-Beja+Tribes+Updated.pdf/file

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Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for sharing and thanks to Farej Hamid Farej for sending me a refined version

Friday, 28 August 2020

Linking the Highlands and Lowlands: Implications of a Test Excavation at Kokan Rockshelter, in 1994 at Agordat, Eritrea

Linking the Highlands and Lowlands: Implications of a Test Excavation at Kokan Rockshelter, in 1994 at Agordat, Eritrea 

ربط المرتفعات وآلمنخفضات: الآثار المترتبة على إجراء عملية حفر تجريبية في جبل كوكن ، جوار مدينة أغردات في عام ١٩٩٤

Entrance to the Koken Rockshelter

تحليل لحفريات الاستطلاع والاختبار في المتحف الوطني الإريتري في عام ١٩٩٤ في جبل كوكن يضع أغردات بقوة ضمن مزيج من الأنظمة التجارية الإقليمية من ٢٣٠٠ قبل الميلاد إلى "فترة ما قبل أكسوم، حوالي ٤٠٠ قبل الميلاد حيث كانت مركزاً للتجارة المتزايدة بين وادي النيل والمرتفعات الإريترية/الإثيوبية 

An article by S.A. Brandt, Andrea Manzo and Cinzia Perlingeri published at The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. P. R. Schmidt, Curtis, Matthew, Zelalem Teka. Trenton (NJ), Red Sea Press. : 33-47.

The article deals with ceramic and lithic materials from a 2nd-1st millennium BC site in the region of Agordat, in the Western Eritrean lowlands. A first assessment of the role of the region in the complex economic relationship between lowlands and Eritrean highland is given.

An analysis of reconnaissance and test excavations from the National Eritrean Museum in 1994 in Kokan firmly places Agordat within the mix of regional trading systems from  ca. 2300 BCE to the “Pre-Axumite period, ca. 400 BCE where it was a center of the increasing trade between the Nile valley and Eritrean/Ethiopian highlands 

http://www.mediafire.com/file/88qdvvoih5pz5on/Agordat+Koken+Excavations+2.pdf/file



Folktale of the Bet Asgede on their origins from Tsenadegle ድግም ቤት አስገድ ዛንታ ቤት አስገድ ብዛዕባ መቦቆሎም ካብ ጸንዓደግለን ጉዕዞኦም ካብ ዓዲ ንፋስ ሐማሴን ናብ ሳሕል

  ድግም ቤት አስገድ     

 ዛንታ ቤት አስገድ ብዛዕባ መቦቆሎም ካብ ጸንዓደግለን ጉዕዞኦም ካብ ዓዲ ንፋስ ሐማሴን ናብ ሳሕል 

التاريخ الشفوي لبيت أسقدى حول ٱصولهم من ظنعادقلي وهجرتهم من عدي نفاس حماسين الى الساحل

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Source: Conti Rossini,  STUDI SU POPOLAZIONI DELL’ ETIOPIA , Rivista degli studi orientali, Vol. 6, Fasc. 2 (1913), pp. 374 - 380



http://www.mediafire.com/file/td7d9mwh3b8wcwc/Rossini+Digm+Bet+Asgede.pdf/file

علاقة السودان باثيوبيا عبر التاريخ بقلم عثمان صالح سبى The Historical Relations of Sudan with Ethiopia by Osman Saleh Sabbe, in Arabic

 

The Historical Relations of Sudan with Ethiopia by Osman Saleh Sabbe, in Arabic

علاقة السودان باثيوبيا عبر التاريخ بقلم عثمان صالح سبى 




http://www.mediafire.com/file/6d3a18wus6p1per/%25D8%25B9%25D9%2584%25D8%25A7%25D9%2582%25D8%25A9_%25D8%25A7%25D9%2584%25D8%25B3%25D9%2588%25D8%25AF%25D8%25A7%25D9%2586_%25D8%25A8%25D8%25A7%25D8%25AB%25D9%258A%25D9%2588%25D8%25A8%25D9%258A%25D8%25A7_%25D8%25B9%25D8%25A8%25D8%25B1_%25D8%25A7%25D9%2584%25D8%25AA%25D8%25A7%25D8%25B1%25D9%258A%25D8%25AE_%25D8%25AF%25D8%25B1%25D8%25A7%25D8%25B3%25D8%25A9_%25D8%25B9%25D9%2584%25D9%2585%25D9%258A%25D8%25A9.PDF/file

On the 'Agazian' Roots መብቆል 'ኣጋዝያን'

 To the so-called 'Agazian' and their sponsors in Tigray. If you want to go back to your roots, go to Yemen. Yet another, Ethiopian source, of the many proofs that Agazian is the name of a tribe in Southern Arabia that migrated to our region. And to the Tigrians who deny any links to Arabia:

እቶም ኣጋዝያን ኢና ትብሉ፤ ኣብ ኤርትራ ምንባር እንተጸሊእኩም ናብቲ ዝመጻእኩምሉ ዓዲ የመን ተመለሱ ጻዕዳ ይግበረልኩም። እዚ ሓደ ካብቲ ቡዙሕ መርትዖታት ዝጠግስ እዩ፤ ማለት ኣጋዝያን ካብ ደቡብ ዓረብ ወይ የመን ዝፈለሱ ዓሌት ምዄኖም ዘረጋግጽ እዩ። እዚ መጽሓፍ ኣብ አዲስ አበባ ዩኒቨርስቲ ከም ቃንዲ መወከሲ ናይ ታሪኽ ትምህርቲ ቀዳማይ ዓመት ይጥቀሙሉ። እዚ ጽሑፍ እዚ ነቶም አብ ትግራይ ኮይኖም ምስ ደቡብ ዓረብ ወይ የመን ርክብ የብልናን ዝብሉዉን ይምልከት።
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ናብ ኢትዮጵያ ዝፈለሱ ቀቢላታት ብዙሓት’ኳ እንተነበሩ፡ ሎሚ ግን ካብኣቶም ክልተ ጥራይ ኢና እንፈልጥ፡ ሓበሻትን ኣግኣዝያንን (ጋዘ)። እቲ ቀዳማይ ብሓደ ናይ ደቡብ ዓረብ ውራቕ (ዝተወረቐ ጽሑፍ- inscription) ክምስከረሉ ኸሎ፡ ናይቲ ካልኣይ ግን በቲ ኣብ ኣዱሊስ ዝርከብ “ውቕሮ” ናይቲ ዘይተፈልጠ ሃጸይ ኢትዮጵያ ዝተጠቕሶ ጥራይ ኢና እንፈልጦ። ኣብቶም ብ3 ቋንቋታት ዝተገብሩ ናይ ንጉስ ኢዛና ውቕሮታት፡ ሓበሻት ዝብል ስም ሓንሳብ ጥራይ ተጠቒሱ ኣሎ። እዚ ድማ ኣብቶም ቋንቋታ ሳባውን ግእዝን ጽሑፋት ኢዩ። ኣብ ኢትዮጵያውያን “ኣግኣዝያን” ዝብል ቃል ህቡብ ኢዩ። ጥንታዊ ቋንቋኦም ግእዝ ይበሃል፡ ኣብ ኢትዮጵያዊ ስነ-ጽሑፋት ድማ ንመሬቶም “መሬት ኣግኣዝያን፡” ወይ “ብሔረ ኣግኣዝያን፡” ኢልካ ናይ ምጽዋዕ ዝንባለ (ኣዝማምያ) ኣሎ። ሓበሻት ግን ኣብ ወግዓውን ስነ-ጽሑፍ ተጎስዩ። እቲ “ጋዘ” ዝብል ቃል ከም ወግዓዊ መጸውዒ ጥንታዊ ይመስል። ምኽንያቱ እቲ ኣብ ናይ ኣዱሊስ ውቕሮ ሓተታ ዝሃበ ሰብ፡ ነዚ ቃል ምስ ኣኽሱምን ከባቢኡን ኣተኣሳሲሩ ስለዘላልዮ። ሎሚ እዚ ቃል’ዚ ዝተለወጠ መልክዑ፡ ኣብቲ “ኣከለ ጉዛይ፡” ዝብል ንመላእ ዞባ ደቡባዊ ኤርትራ ዝምልከት መጸውዒ ንረኽቦ። እዚ ድማ ምስ ጥንታዊት ወደብ ኣዱሊስ ዝተኣሳሰረ ነበረ።

ኣብ ኣውራጃ (ክልል) ትግራይ ሓደ “ሳሓርት፡” ዝበሃል ወረዳ ኣሎ። ኣብ የመን ድማ፡ ብሓደ ዓይነት (ተመሳሳሊ) ስም ማለት “ሰሓርታን” ዝበሃል፡ ኣብ ገምገም ቀይሕ ባሕሪ፡ 75 ኪ/ሜ ካብ ሑደይዳ ርሒቑ ዝርከብ ቦታ ኣሎ። ኣብ ጥቓ’ቲ ኣብ ትግራይ ዘሎ ሳሓርት፡ ሓደ ሓውዜን ዝበሃል፡ ቀደም ኣገዳስነት ዝነበሮ፡ ቦታ ኣሎ። እዚ ድማ ካብቲ ደቡባዊ ሓውሳን ዝበሃል ናይ የመን ክፋል ኢዩ። ደቡባዊ ምዕራብ ካብ ይሓ፡ ሓደ “ማዳራ፡” ዝበሃል ቦታ ኣሎ። ኣብ ሓደ ደቡብ የመንዊ ውቕሮ (ካትባን) ድማ ሓደ ብተመሳሳሊ “ማድራን” ዝበሃል ቦታ ተጠቒሱ ይርከብ። ካብ ይሓ ሰሜናዊ ምዕራብ ሓደ ኣሕሰኣ ዝበሃል ወረዳ ኣሎ። እዚ ምስቲ ኣብ ቲሓማ፡ የመን ዘሎ፡ “ኣሕሲያሕ፡” ዝበሃል ቦታ ይመሳሰል ወይ ይጋጠም። ኣብ ጥቓ ሰንዓፈ፡ ኤርትራ፡ ሓደ ኣብ ጥንቲ “ኮሎየ፡” ዝበሃል ዝነበረ ቦታ ኣሎ። እዚ ምስቲ ኣብ ካታባን ዝርከብ “ኩላይ” ይመሳሰል። ሰራየ ዝብል ስም ካብቲ “ሳርዋን” ዝብል ናይ ጎቦታት ሳራት ኣብ የመን ዝመጸ ኢዩ። ካልእ “ቢሻ፡” ዝበሃል ኣብ ኤርትራ ኣብ መንጎ ኣቑርደትን ከሰላን (ሱዳን) ዝርከብ ቦታ፡ ምስቲ ኣብ ማእከል የመን ዝርከብ “ባሒላሕ” ዝበሃል ቦታ ይመሳሰል ወይ ይተኣሳሰር። ብተወሳኺ እቶም ሰፈርቲ ንፈለግ (ወይ ሩባ) መረብ፡ ብዝኽሪ ናይቲ ፍሉጥ ሓጽቢ “ማሪብ” ኢሎም ሰምዮሞ።

ብዘይካ’ዞም ተመሳሰልቲ ኣስማት ቦታታት፡ ካብ ደቡብ ዓረብያ ብዝመጹ ህዝቢ ስደተኛታት (ወይ ፈለስቲ) ዝተመስረታ ከተማታት ኣለዋ። ሓንቲ ኣብነት ይሓ ኢያ። እቲ “ኣዋም፡” ዝብል ኣብዚ ቦታ ኣብ ዝርከብ ሳባዊ ውቕሮታት ዘሎ ስም፡ ምናልባት ስም ናይቲ ኣብ ይሓ ዘሎ ቤተ-መቕደስ ኮይኑ፡ ስሙ ካብቲ ኣብ ማሪብ ዘሎ “ኣል ሙቓሕ፡” ዝተባህለ ቤተ-መቕደስ ዝተወስደ ኢዩ። እዚ ስም መበቆሉ ካብ ደቡብ ዓረብያ ምዃኑ ኣይንፈልጥን ኢና። ይሓ፡ እቶም ካብ ደቡብ ዓረብያ ዝመጹ ስደተኛታት ማእከላይ ቦታኦም ኣበይ ከምዝነበረ፡ ገለ ኣመት ትህበና ኢያ። ነዚ ዕላማ ኩሉግዜ፡ ስትራተጂካዊ ኣገዳስነትን ሕርሻዊ ተኽእሎታትን ዘለዎ ቦታ ይመርጹ ነበሩ። ኣብ እግሪ ሓደ እምባ ዝተደኮነት ኮይና፡ ኣብ ምብራቓ ወሓዚ ሩባ ምስ ሰፊሕ ሰጣሕ ጎልጎል ይርከብ። እቶም ሰፈርቲ ነቲ እምባ ከም መከላኸሊ ከም ዝተጠቕሙሉ ብሩህ ኢዩ። እዚ ተርእዮ’ዚ ኣብ ኩለን’ተን ቅድመ-ኣክሱም ዝነበራ ኢትዮጵያውን ከተማታት ይርአ። እተን ደቡባዊ ዓረብያዊ ኣሰራት ዘለወን ማእከላት፡ ንስፍሓት ናይቲ ካብ ደቡባዊ ዓረብ ዝመጹ ሰፈርቲ ዝሓደግዎ ጽልዋ፡ ብሓርፋፍ ንኽንግምት ክሕግዛና ኢየን። እዚ ካብ ገማግም ቀይሕ ባሕሪ ክሳብ ባርካ ምዕራብ ፈለግ ተከዘን ይዝርጋሕ ነበረ። ኣብዚ ህሉው ግዜ ግን ንስፍሓት ጽልዋ ደቡባዊ ዓረብ ንምግላጽ ኣሸጋሪ ይኸውን።
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Source: Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1972 by Sergew Habte Sellasie p. 27-30




Tuesday, 25 August 2020

“Tsada Getzu, Tsada Libu (White Face, White Heart)”: An Exploration of Skin Lightening in Eritrea

 

“Tsada Getzu, Tsada Libu (White Face, White Heart)”: An Exploration of Skin Lightening in Eritrea by Fikrejesus Amahazion published 2017 at Africology: The Journal of Pan African Studies, vol.11, no.1. 236-260

ABSTRACT

This paper represents an analysis of skin lightening through interviews, focus group discussions, and survey questionnaires with informants in Eritrea. Findings suggest that skin lightening is increasingly popular with many individuals, particularly females, and that those engaging in skin lightening primarily use creams, lotions, soaps, and homemade mixes consisting of natural ingredients. As with many other countries, skin lightening in Eritrea is associated with a number of different factors. It is recommended that national policymakers consider enacting legislation or developing guidelines to regulate skin lightening products and its ingredients, while public awareness of the significant health risks associated with the use of lightening products is also advocated.

http://jpanafrican.org/docs/vol11no1/11.1-18-Amahazion-final.pdf

Saturday, 22 August 2020

Urban Precursors in the Horn: Early 1st Millennium Communities in Eritrea

 

Urban Precursors in the Horn: Early 1st Millennium Communities in Eritrea:

The authors  highlight re­search showing that between 800 BC and 400 BC , the greater Asmara area of  Eritrea supported the earliest settled agro-pastoralist communi­ties known in the highlands of the Horn. These communities pre-date and are contemporane­ous with Pre-Aksumite settlements in the high­lands of southern Eritrea and northern Ethiopia.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273292644_Urban_precursors_in_the_Horn_Early_1st-millennium_BC_communities_in_Eritrea

Friday, 21 August 2020

Sunday, 16 August 2020

Isaias's answers to questions from the public 1994

 Isaias answers to questions from the public 1st September 1994 : 720 questions that were condensed to 42. Those included:

- the killing of disabled fighters in Mai Habar

- the laying-off of staff

- Eritrean opposition fronts

- the fighters arrested after the uprising May 1993

- press law, corruption, housing shortage, aid, foreign relations, etc

http://www.mediafire.com/file/eem1l478a29wu3q/Isaias+answers+to+public+94.PDF/file

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Thanks to Prof. Kjetil Tronvoll for having the answers translated from Tigrinya to English and for sharing it


Thursday, 13 August 2020